Formation of Different Levels in Community
Development and Its Mental Hygienic Effect
on the Person's Identity
Tóth Gábor (1997. ELTE Pedagogia
- Master Thesis Summary )
2. Content-, conceptual approach and framework
2.1. Emotional life and psychical-constitutional
2.1.1. The Family
2.1.2. The family and the School
2.1.3. The Family, the School and the Society
3. Mental hygiene
3.1. Early institutions
3.2. Modern approach
3.3. International organisations and national
4. How to take care of the mental hygienic
problems at the
different level of personal- and community-development
4.2. The development of the "human-system"
4.3. Stairs of the community development
5. "6CIA"-method (6 Category Intervention
5.1. The system and structure of the essential
5.1.1. The Prescriptive offers
5.1.2. The Informative offers
5.1.3. The Confrontative offers
5.1.4. The Cathartic offers
5.1.5. The Catalytic offers
5.1.6. The Supporting offers
"Novalis said: " The person always
going home...continuously."... and the
Human race is doing the same. Now, we are
5 thousand years closer to our final homecoming,
and this enormous symphony has only one big
theme, what is very simple: to be a Human
being. Just like if we only pretend to be
human, but we are still not. Although we
would like to be a human, but now we are
living from the advance of our lately human
being. Now we are just peculiar being. We
are living alone both from the animal kingdom
and the spiritual world in a fatal separation.
We do not have any relation with them any
more, and we still cannot find and accomplish
a real-ourselves, which is living somewhere
very deeply inside of us.
No one from us is living for and in the present
moment, because in this moment we are always
living for our tomorrow and a day after tomorrow.
We take our destiny to the future, and believe
that tomorrow we could reach the point where
we find the real life. But this continuous
wish makes us an endless desire. Nothing
enough, anything could reassure us about
our life. Nothing can be done, neither pleasure,
ecstasy, money, fame or power, all are in
vain; because we all wish a peaceful life
and we would like to be that mystic human
who is living inside of our mind." (Hamvas, B.: Anthologia humana 436.p.)
If I would like to write down what is the
purpose of this thesis I would have a little
difficulty to make this explanation. Like
the famous writer and philosopher in the
Motto, I would like to find how could we
make our life better, how could we help to
each other. The aim of this thesis is to
examine that how appears the mental hygiene
in different level of community and how it
affects the person's identity in the community.
The thesis has three main parts. In the firs
part I try to find definitions and basic
inherence for and between the mental hygiene
and community development. In the second
part I write down a community development
line's characteristic points and a practicable
system. Last but not least the third part,
where I try to write down a very well working
communication model, between the special
teacher (as a helper) and the special needs
(as a helped person, client) person. The
"special needs" meaning in this
case is the person who is mentally retarded,
who has mental disorder, psychical problem,
personality disorder etc. My purpose with
this structure is to show a way from the
purely theoretical starts to a completely
finished and well working practice. I hope
that this work could help many special teachers
to understand the rules and alternative possibility
of a community development and the personal
identity formation, to understand and teach
more easily handicapped people.
2. Content-, conceptual approach and framework
Every historical age has a kind of psychical
and spiritual help, because always been a
kind of person who wanted to help others
for different reasons. Therefore, if this
action was not always a well-organised mental
hygienic help, but someone did it from the
heart. It means that every age has own resort
to help. These people were medicine men,
priests, doctor etc. They were all different
but what they did is the same: try to help
others, who need them. They did it as a voluntary
work, as a community service or as a profession,
depends on the country and age. (*See 3.1.)
2.1. Emotional life and psychical-constitutional
"Soul? What is that...?
The soul is the "nothing" what
Diddle the world out of it's own pole,
To make real the "something".
Hereby the No is change to be a Yes,
The meaningless is changed to be a sense."
(Popper, Péter: How could we kill
Everybody wants to be happy and try to make
the own harmony between the "soma"
(somatic dimension), the psyche (psychic
dimension) and the spirit (noetic dimension
from Victor Frankl). The physical health, the mental health
and the spiritual health are working together
and if some of them are not healthy it could
influence the others. It means that every
human being has a right to get the help if
he/she has a problem. This is the law of
the nature what gives us the knowledge about
itself, which is our power, the magic of
thinking. If we know how to help we have
to help, if we don't know how to help we
have to make an effort to find out, to find
the way of it. But we all have to accept
ourselves in different situations, status
and position and after all others. This is
the basic act to be a human and to find our
identity. In this case the "Identity"
is to find out our:
2. Aim (purpose) and
These three makes our identity (I use the
identity, as Eric H. Erikson used it in his theory).
The next step is to make our own constitutional
health as a mental hygienic health. When
do we know that we have it? When our personal
problems and tolerance level have a balance.
If between this two we have a strained relation
and the person could not solve it on his/her
own, the mental hygienic health is going
to break down and he/she will need help.
If this problem is not individual, because
many others have the same or similar problem
they will need a Helper person, who could
show them the way out of the problems. This
is one kind of action when a community makes
itself around a Helper person and a common
problem. This happened in our history many
times, sometimes the Helper was not the best
person with the best ideas, but the fact
is, that he could show a kind of way out
for people who have identity and mental hygienic
problem. This is the base in our time too
why new sects and splinter groups still could
come up. It shows us the first community
rule: usually common problem makes a group
and that is the basic of a new community.
They make common cause with each other and
identify themselves with a Helper. In this
case the Helper's personality (could be a
teacher) is always a key of the community
and it's future. This second community rule
makes attention on the Helper's knowledge
and intelligence. This is the point where
we know: that if we are teachers and we have
a group of children in our "hands",
our knowledge and helping motivation is one
of the most important "key" for
the group development, what makes them later
a dynamic community.
It is very interesting to examine the question
that what kind of factors makes our mental
hygienic health, and what kind of factors
makes our behaviour-attributes. For a long
time people thought that the inheritance
makes all of it. Béla Buda wrote:
"This conclusion was the basic of the
aristocratic ideology, it follows that all
the rights, land and money is inherited and
the inheritor has all the attributes what
he/she needs to be a new leader." (Buda, Béla: The personality development...
p.13.) In our times is still a question that
how many percent is the function of the inheritance
in the person's behaviour and how strongly
is dominated by these facts (genetics factors).
The other important factor is the acquired
attributes what influences our behaviour.
For example these factors we could get across
different type of sicknesses usually by mental
sicknesses or disorders. In the last 30 years
the role of the adopted attributes is more
important than before. The psychology scientists
made many examinations about this subject.
In this case we speak about the social environment,
personal model or idea and some years ago
we started to think, that the intrauterine-life
time is also very important to get information
and different influences from the closest
A theory of development should reflect an
attempt to relate behavioural change to chronological
age; that is, diverse behavioural characteristics
should be related to specific stages of growth.
The rules governing the transitions between
these growth states also must be identified.
The dominant developmental theories are Freud's theory of personality development and
Piaget's theory of perception and cognition. Both
explain human development in terms of interactions
of biological determinants and environmental
events. Freud's theory is based on the concept
that a healthy personality requires the satisfaction
of instinctual needs. In Freudian theory
the personality is composed of the id, ego,
and superego. The id is the source of instinctual
drives. The role of the ego is to cope with
the demands of the id while remaining within
the rules of society, which in turn are represented
by the superego. The physical focus of instinctual-needs
changes with age and the periods of different
focus are called stages. Infants for example,
achieve maximum id satisfaction from sucking;
this is called the oral stage. Children progress
through four stages, ending with adult sexuality.
Freud clearly integrated biological and environmental
variables in his theory. Piaget believed
that from birth humans are active learners
who do not require external incentives. He
proposed that cognitive development occur
in four stages. Stage I. Sensorimotor intelligence
(birth-2 years), takes the child from unrelated
reflexive movements to behaviour that reflects
knowledge of simple concepts. Stage II. Pre-operational
thought (2-7 years) is characterised by an
increasing use of abstract symbols as reflected
in imaginative play. Stage III. Concrete
operational thought (7-11 years), involves
relatively sophisticated problem-solving
behaviour and attainment of adult thought.
Stage IV. Formal operational thought (12
years and older) is characterised by the
ability to develop hypotheses and deduce
The various aspects of child development
encompass physical growth, emotional and
psychological changes, and social adjustments.
A great many determinants influence patterns
of development and change. Now, we could
generally agreed that patterns of child development
are determined by the joint interaction of
genetics and the environment, although sharp
disagreements occur about the relative importance
of an individual's genetic makeup. Research
on this problem involves the use of separately
reared monozygotic (identical) twins. Their
behaviours are compared for similarities
and differences, and the results are then
compared with behaviours of twins reared
together. If genetics is critical, the twins
reared apart will be as similar in most respects
as those reared together. (These studies
usually assume that when twins are reared
apart, their environments are different in
important ways, an assumption that is not
always true.) Except in instances of massive
environmental deprivation, the patterns and
rates of physical and motor development appear
to be genetically controlled. Research also
indicated that both genetic and environmental
variables contribute to intellectual behaviour.
A genetic component also exists in personality
characteristics such as introversion and
extroversion, activity level and predisposition
to psychoses. Many advances have been made
in identifying the genetic causes of mental
illness, but more research is needed to understand
better how genetic mechanisms operate among
normal children. All of these facts (inheritance,
acquired and adopted attributes) infects
and creates our personal behaviour. Because
we are not adults right after the birth we
have to study, examine and develop ourselves
to find out our attributes and ability. For
this we need many help from our parents and
family, and also from our teachers. They
are all Helpers in our life. The teacher's
classical and origin meaning is come from
the Greek word "peidagogos", what's
meaning is something like "child's guardian".
His/her duty is to take care of the child,
to make a safe environment, to teach for
life and also different scientific knowledge.
Both Plato and Aristotle wrote about children. Plato believed that
children are born with special talents and
then their training should stress those talents.
His views are consistent with modern thinking
about individual differences and education.
Aristotle proposed methods for observing
children's behaviour that were forerunners
of modern methods. For many centuries thereafter,
little interest was shown in the development
of children because they were regarded only
as miniature adults. In the 18th century
the French philosopher Jean Jacques Rousseau seemed to echo Plato, when he stated that
children should be free to express their
energies in order to develop their special
talents. His view suggests that normal development
is occurs best in a non-restrictive and supportive
environment. Similar concepts are popular
The school is a kind of "social drill
ground" where the children study not
only scientific knowledge but all the social
behaviour and in there they could practice
what already got from there own family. The
family and later the school system's duty
is to prepare the children for the self-supported,
independent and real social life. This has
two very important requirements:
1. Social integration
2. Independent creation
The teacher's duty is to make the adequate
and suitable condition for the child for
his/her development and study progress. The
teacher's aim is that the child who is his/her
student becomes an independent person who
has self-supported ideas and could integrate
to the "adult's" social life. The
teacher's devices are:
1. s/he has to give him/herself as a model;
2. to give suitable information;
3. to give motivation;
4. arouse children's curiosity for new things
and help them to get knowledge of it.
Cognitive theories of motivation assume that
behaviour is directed as a result of the
active processing and interpretation of information.
Motivation is not seen as a mechanical or
innate set of processes but as a purposive
and persistent set of behaviours based on
the information available. Expectations,
based on past experiences, serve to direct
behaviour toward particular goals. Motivation
popularly is thought to be essential to learning.
Yet many theorists suggest that motives make
little or no direct contribution - that they
simply tend to promote practice. To show
that motivation affects performance of what
has been learned is not the same as demonstrating
its effect on the process of learning itself.
This would require that individuals learn
under various levels of motivation and be
tested under the same incentive levels. (This
is to control for the effects of motivation
on performance alone.) Indeed, the best-controlled
experiments of this design indicate learning
effects to be the same under different levels
of motivation. Important concepts of cognitive
motivation theory include expectancy-value
theory, attribution theory, cognitive dissonance,
self-perception, and self-actualisation (A.
Self: the "I" as experienced by
an individual. In modern psychology the notion
of the self has replaced earlier conceptions
of the soul. The concept of the self has
been a central feature of many personality
theories, including those of Sigmund Freud,
Alfred Adler, Carl Jung, Gordon W. Allport, Carl Rogers, Rollo May and Abraham H. Maslow.
According to Carl Jung the self is a totality
consisting of conscious and unconscious contents
that dwarfs the ego in scope and intensity.
The maturation of the self is the individuation
process, which is the goal of the healthy
personality. C. Rogers theorised that a person's
self-concept determines his behaviour and
his relation to the world, and that true
therapeutic improvement occurs only when
the individual changes his own self-concept.
R. May's approach was similarly existential;
he conceived the self as a dynamic entity,
alive with potentiality. A. Maslow's theory
of self-actualisation was based on a hierarchy
of needs and emphasised the highest capacities
or gratification of a person. The Humanistic
psychology is the 20th-century movement in
psychology, what believes that man, as an
individual is a unique being. The movement
grew in opposition to the two mainstream
20th-century trends in psychology: behaviourism
and psychoanalysis. Humanistic psychologists
believe, that behaviourists are over-concerned
with the scientific study and analysis of
the actions of man, as an organism to the
neglect of basic aspects of man as a feeling,
thinking individual. Too much effort is spent
in laboratory research, which quantifies
and reduces human behaviour to its elements.
Humanists also take issue with the deterministic
orientation of psychoanalysis, which postulates
that man's early experiences and drives determine
his behaviour. Humanists tend to believe
that the individual is responsible for his
life and actions, and may at any time creatively
change his attitudes or behaviour through
awareness and will. The humanist is concerned
with the fullest growth of the individual
in the areas of love (Erich Fromm: The Art of Loving), fulfillment, self-worth
(Eric Berne: Games People Play), and autonomy. The Association
for Humanistic Psychology lists five basic
postulates: "man as man supersedes the
sum of his parts; man has his being in a
human context; man is aware; man has choice;
and man is intentional."
C. Rogers stresses that in the development
of an individual's personality he strives
for "self-actualization (to become oneself),
self-maintenance (to keep on being oneself),
and self-enhancement (to transcend the status
quo)." (C. Rogers: A Way of Being)
"The ancient educational wisdom said
that the proper education has 3 facts:
3. to be an example (exemplary)
The first one sometimes not enough, the second
one has some compulsion; therefore the third
one is what we could call the "deepest"
method. For this third one is inevitable
the teacher personality, he/she has to motivate
and induce the children to imitation."
(Weninger, Antal: On the shore of the Time - Yoga
and personality p.42-43.)
The next figure shows us (Figure 1.) a "Socialisation
Model" (by Korom, Pál: VE-GA). This figure is a model of the optimal
case of socialisation in all basic "ground"
in society. We can find the basic social-claim
of the person during the socialisation process.
If this process is consciously controlled,
we can call it "educational process".
But if during the process too many demands
are unsatisfied we could have many mental
1.) Socialisation Model (VE-GA)
2.1.1. The Family
The family performs various valuable functions
for its members. Perhaps most important of
all, it provides for emotional and psychological
security, particularly through the warmth,
love, and companionship that living together
generates between spouses and in turn between
them and their children. The family also
provides a valuable social and political
function by institutionalising procreation
and by providing guidelines for the regulation
of sexual conduct. The family additionally
provides such other socially beneficial functions
as the rearing and socialisation of children,
along with such humanitarian activities as
caring for its members when they are sick
or disabled. On the economic side, the family
provides food, shelter, clothing, and physical
security for its members, many of who may
be too young or too old to provide for the
basic necessities of life themselves. Finally,
on the social side the family may serve to
promote order and stability within society
as a whole.
The nuclear or conjugal family is the basic
unit of family organisation in virtually
every society. It is generally defined as
a married couple and their children (including
adopted and fostered children, as well as
the couple's natural children). Other forms
of family organisation, such as compound
and joint families are in a sense built upon
the nuclear family or contain units comparable
to it in their structure. In many modern
societies the nuclear family is identical
to the typical household unit. Members of
the nuclear family share the same dwelling
place, usually a single house or apartment.
In agricultural societies the nuclear family
is often the primary unit of production,
sharing tasks and taking collective responsibility
for the income that sustains them. In both
agricultural and other types of communities,
the nuclear family is almost always the primary
unit of economic consumption. One or both
parents and sometimes children earn money
outside the home and then share at least
some of the fruits of their labour with the
family as a whole.
The attitudes, values, and behaviours of
parents toward their children clearly influence
patterns of development. Likewise, children's
characteristics influence parental attitudes
and behaviours; handicapped children, for
example, require more attention and cause
more parental anxiety than do normal children.
Extensive studies have established that parental
behaviours toward children vary widely, ranging
from destructiveness to permissiveness, warmth
to hostility and anxious involvement to calm
detachment. These variations in attitudes
produce different patterns in family relationships.
Parental hostility and permissiveness for
example are associated with highly aggressive,
non-compliant children. Warm, restrictive
behaviour by parents is associated with dependent,
polite and obedient children. Punishment
techniques also influence behaviour. For
example, parents who often use physical punishment
tend to have children who rank above average
in their use of physical aggression. It appears
then; that one of the ways children acquires
patterns of behaviour is by imitating their
parents. The entire psychological tendency
agrees that the family is the most important
community in our personality development,
and one of the most important parts of the
early childhood and the family-attachments.
In this matter the family is one of the most
important mental hygienic community. The
family could save us against sickness or
it could cause trouble to us. The family
gives us all the basic information about
world, life and death, love and hate; it
could be our "supportive-net" against
the stress-effects of the outside.
This "supporting-net-system" has
* the person is an "individuum",
* the supportive-net "personally"
interested about the person,
* the safety net "speaks the same language",
* open expectations,
* open criticise of the achievement,
* reward and punishment has the same worth
(Komlósi, Piroska: The supportive and damaging influences
of the Family...p.23.)
All these show us that the supportive system
is sensitive for the person own needs.
Parental behaviour affects the child's personality
and his likelihood of developing psychological
problems. The most important qualities in
this regard are whether and how parents communicate
their love to a child, the disciplinary techniques
they use and their behaviour as role models.
There are of course cultural and class differences
in the socialisation values held by parents.
In most modern societies well-educated parents
are more concerned with their children's
academic achievement and autonomy, and are
generally more democratic than are less well
educated parents. No single area of interaction
can alone account for parents' influence
on a child's behaviour and social functioning.
One investigator has emphasised four factors.
However: (1) the degree to which parents
try to control the child's behaviour, (2)
the pressures imposed on the child to perform
at high levels of cognitive, social or emotional
development, (3) the clarity of parent-child
communications, and finally, (4) the parents'
nurturance of affection toward the child.
Those children who appear to be the most
mature and competent tend to have parents
who were more affectionate, more supportive,
more conscientious, and more committed to
their role as parents. These parents were
also more controlling and demanded more mature
behaviour from their children. Although the
parents respected their children's independence,
they generally held firm positions and provided
clear reasons for them. This parental type
is termed authoritative. A second class of
children consists of those who are moderately
self-reliant but somewhat withdrawn. The
parents of these children tended to use less
rational control and relied more heavily
on coercive discipline. These parents were
also slightly less affectionate, and they
did not encourage the discussion of parental
rules. This parental type is termed authoritarian.
The least mature children had parents who
were lax in discipline and non-controlling
but affectionate. They made few demands on
the children for mature behaviour and allowed
them to regulate their own activities as
much as possible. This parental type is termed
The effects of divorce on children appear
to be very complicated. The major adverse
impact of divorce on children is evident
during the first year after the divorce and
seems to be a bit more enduring for boys
than for girls. Pre-school children seem
to be most vulnerable to the effect of divorce
and adolescents the least.
In most modern industrialised countries the
proportion of working mothers with children
under 18 greatly increased in the last few
decades of the 20th century, to the point
that one-half of all mothers with children
under 5 are in the workforce. However, there
is no clear evidence that this change in
Western society has had a profound influence
on child development, independent of other
historical changes during this same period.
As in the treatment of adult patients, psychiatric
treatment of children requires determination
of any genetic, constitutional or physical
factors that have contributed to the disturbance.
It is also essential that the parent-child
relationship be assessed for its contribution
to the disturbed behaviour. Where parental
actions are disruptive or disturbing - as
for example, in relationships coloured by
alcoholism, hostility, cruelty and neglect,
overprotection of the child or excessive
ambitions for and expectations of the child
- it is common to find behaviour disorders
in the children involved. The existence of
neurotic, psychotic or psychopathic conditions
in the parents often contributes to a faulty
parent-child relationship. The death or loss
of a parent may also have a lasting effect
on a child's emotional growth. Another source
of personality problems may be the child's
relationship with brothers and sisters. Child
psychiatry usually involves some form of
family therapy. One of the important processes
that mediate a child's self-concept is that
of identification; this involves the child's
incorporation of the characteristics of parents
or other persons by adopting their appearance,
attitudes, and behaviour. Children tend to
identify with those persons to whom they
are emotionally attached and whom they perceive
to be similar to themselves in some way.
They seem to identify most strongly with
parents who are emotionally warm or who are
dominant and powerful. The role models children
adopt may have negative as well as positive
characteristics, however, can thus influence
children in undesirable as well as beneficial
ways. (Buchmueller, 1955.) " (Gerevich, József: Community mental hygiene,
2.1.2. The family and the School
Urbanisation, the reduction of infant mortality,
improvements in child health, the fact that
families, individuals and whole societies
could afford longer and better schooling,
growth in the size of populations, greater
capacity for control by central and local
government, the availability of new kinds
of educational apparatus and teaching aids.
All these did much to shape the progress
of teacher education during the decades after
1900. The three concerns that guided the
development of 20th-century education were
the child, science and society. So-called
progressive education movements supporting
child-centred education, scientific-realist
education and social reconstruction laid
the foundations for this trilogy. The progressive
education movement was part and parcel of
a broader social and political reform called
the Progressive movement, which dates to
the last decades of the 19th century and
the early decades of the 20th. Elementary
education had spread throughout the Western
world, largely doing away with illiteracy
and raising the level of social understanding.
Yet, despite this progress, the schools had
failed to keep pace with the tremendous social
changes that had been going on. Dissatisfaction
with existing schools led several educational
reformers who wished to put their ideas into
practice to establish experimental schools
during the last decade of the 19th century
and in the early 20th century. The principal
experimental schools in America until 1914
* the University of Chicago Laboratory School
(founded in 1896 and directed by John Dewey),
* the Francis W. Parker School (founded in
1901 in Chicago),
* the School of Organic Education at Fairhope
(founded by Marietta Johnson in 1907)
* the experimental elementary school at the
University of Missouri, Columbia (founded
in 1904 by Junius L. Meriam).
The common goal of all was to eliminate the
school's traditional stiffness and to break
down hard and fast subject-matter lines.
Each school adopted an activity program.
Each operated on the assumption that education
was something, that should not be imposed
from without the child, but should draw forth
the latent possibilities from within the
child, and each believed in the democratic
concept of individual worth.
Dewey, whose writings and lectures influenced
educators throughout the world, laid the
foundations of a new philosophy that continues
to affect the whole structure of education,
particularly at the elementary level. His
theories were expounded in School and Society
(1899), The Child and the Curriculum (1902)
and Democracy and Education (1916). For Dewey,
philosophy and education render service to
each other. Education becomes the laboratory
Society should be interpreted to the child
through daily living in the classroom, which
acts as a miniature society. Education leads
to no final end; it is something continuous,
"a reconstruction of accumulated experience",
which must be directed toward social efficiency.
Education is life, not merely a preparation
for life. The notions expressed by progressive
education have influenced public-school systems
everywhere. Some of the movement's lasting
effects can be seen in: the activity programs,
imaginative writing and reading classes,
projects linked to the community, flexible
classroom space, dramatics and informal activities,
discovery methods of learning, self-assessment
systems and programs for the development
of citizenship and responsibility found in
school systems all over the world.
The teachers who are the members of the teaching
profession usually must meet certain basic
requirements. The criteria vary from country
to country, but generally include going through
processes of formal education or training,
acquiring specialised knowledge in a particular
subject area, securing certification or validation
as members of the profession and maintaining
standards of performance, that are continually
redefined and expanded by the profession.
Professional responsibilities vary from country
to country and according to the age level
taught. General areas of responsibility include
active and sometimes conflicting, roles in
the school as well as in the community. Parent
substitute, confident, disciplinarian, community
leader and acceptable behaviour models are
a few of the roles that teachers are expected
to fulfil. Approximately two-thirds of the
world's teachers are women, the great majority
being employed on the elementary level. Teachers
in modern societies are usually protected
in their positions after a period of satisfactory
service. Once they have achieved "tenure",
their jobs are guaranteed unless proof of
incompetence or moral laxity is established.
The teaching profession is a relatively new
one; in some societies the occupation has
still not attained professional status. Traditionally,
parents, elders, religious leaders and sages
were responsible for teaching children how
to behave, how to think and what to believe.
Adults shared in common activities with children
who gradually acquired the knowledge, myths
and general teaching of their culture. Later,
teachers were often those young people who
had been successful as students. They learned
their craft by observing and practising the
methods of their own teachers. Germany introduced
the first formal criteria for the education
of teachers in the 18th century, setting
examples for other countries and paving the
way for the establishment of a real profession.
Further development came in the 19th century
as society became more industrialised and
the concept of schooling became more universal.
The amount of preparatory or pre-service
training required of teachers today varies
from country to country and in some cases
is still very limited. In the 20th century,
not only was teacher education upgraded but
efforts to gain professional recognition
increased: teachers began to view themselves
as educators and organised in an effort to
improve their status, their working conditions
and the overall quality of educational offerings.
The early professional associations were
organised according to school type or particular
School experiences - like family experiences
- also can create personality problems. Many
children exhibit conduct and learning disturbances
because they are emotionally, temperamentally
or intellectually unable to learn. Children
with perceptual difficulties such as dyslexia,
for example, may fail to learn to read or
to develop reading skills appropriate to
their age level. As a consequence, they often
become frustrated and anxious over their
failure to meet the standards of their family
and their class. They need a kind of therapeutic
help. Most therapeutic techniques used with
adults are also employed with children, as
well as more specialised methods such as
play therapy. In the latter, play activities
are used as the primary basis for communication
between the child and the Helper person (like
teacher, therapist etc.). Play activities
enable children to express their feelings,
thoughts, wishes, and fears more freely and
easily than they are able to do through purely
2.1.3. The family, the school and the Society
Socialisation is a process by which people,
especially children, learns acceptable and
unacceptable behaviours for a given environment.
The process by which children learn acceptable
and unacceptable behaviour is called socialisation.
Children are expected to learn, for example,
that extreme physical aggression, stealing,
and cheating are unacceptable, and that co-operation,
honesty, and sharing are acceptable. Some
theories suggest that socialisation is achieved
only through imitation or through a process
of rewards and punishments. Current theories,
however, stress the role of cognition, or
perceiving, thinking, and knowing; thus,
mature socialisation requires that a person
explicitly or implicitly understand the rules
of social behaviour that function in all
Socialisation also includes understanding
concepts of morality. The American psychologist
Lawrence Kohlberghas demonstrated that moral thinking exists
on three levels. At the lowest level, a rule
is obeyed in order to avoid punishment. This
level characterises the thought of very young
children. At the highest level, a person
has a rational understanding of universal
moral principles necessary for society's
survival. The understanding of such concepts,
however, is often inconsistent with behaviour.
Research has shown that moral behaviour varies
with each situation and is not predictable
3. Mental hygiene
What is the mental hygiene? The mental hygiene
is the science of maintaining mental health
and preventing the development of psychosis,
neurosis or other mental disorders. Since
the founding of the United Nations the concepts
of mental health and hygiene have achieved
international acceptance. As defined in the
1946 constitution of the World Health Organisation, "health is a state of complete physical,
mental, and social well-being, and not merely
the absence of disease or infirmity." The term mental health represents a variety
of human aspirations:
Habilitation of mentally retarded,
rehabilitation of the mentally disturbed,
prevention of mental disorder, reduction
of tension in a stressful world, and attainment
of a state of well-being in which the individual
functions at a level consistent with his
or her mental potential. As noted by the
World Federation for Mental Health, the concept
of optimum mental health refers not to an
absolute or ideal state but to the best possible
state insofar as circumstances are alterable.
Mental health is regarded as a condition
of the individual, relative to the capacities
and social-environmental context of that
person. Mental hygiene includes all measures
taken to promote and to preserve mental health.
Community mental health refers to the extent
to which the organisation and functioning
of the community determines, or is conducive
to the mental health of its members. Throughout
the ages the mentally disturbed have been
viewed with a mixture of fear and revulsion.
Their fate generally has been one of rejection,
neglect, and ill treatment. Though in ancient
medical writings there are references to
mental disturbance that display views very
similar to modern humane attitudes, interspersed
in the same literature are instances of socially
sanctioned cruelty based upon the belief
that mental disorders have supernatural origins
such as demonic possession. Even reformers
sometimes used harsh methods of treatment;
for example, the 18th-century American physician
Benjamin Rush endorsed the practice of restraining mental
patients with his notorious "tranquillising
3.1. Early institutions
The history of care for the mentally ill
reflects human cultural diversity. The earliest
known mental hospitals were established in
the Arab world, in Baghdad (AD 918) and in
Cairo, with that special consideration traditionally
given disturbed people, the "afflicted
of Allah." Some contemporary African
tribes benignly regard hallucinations as
communications from the realm of the spirits;
among others, Hindu culture shows remarkable
tolerance for what is considered to be bizarre
behaviour in Western societies. The Western
interpretation of mental illness as being
caused by demonic possession reached its
height during a prolonged period of preoccupation
with witchcraft (15th through 17th century)
in Europe and in colonial North America.
So-called madhouses such as Bedlam (founded
in London in 1247) and the Bicêtre
(the Paris asylum for men) were typical of
18th-century mental institutions in which
the sufferers were routinely shackled. Inmates
of these places often were believed to be
devoid of human feeling, and their management
was indifferent if not brutal; the primary
consideration was to isolate the mentally
disturbed from ordinary society. In British
colonial America, mentally deranged persons
frequently were auctioned off to be cared
for (or exploited) by farmers; some were
driven from towns by court order, and others
were placed in almshouses. Only after more
than a century of colonisation was the first
British colonial asylum for the insane established
in Williamsburg, Va., in 1773. In the 1790s,
the French reformer Philippe Pinel scandalised his fellow physicians by removing
the chains from 49 inmates (they were mentally
retarded mostly!) of the Bic?tre. Some special
educators call this time "The Start
of the Special Education". At about
the same time, William Tuke, a Quaker tea and coffee merchant, founded
the York (England) Retreat to provide humane
treatment. Benjamin Rush, a physician and
signer of the Declaration of Independence,
also advocated protection of the rights of
the "insane". Despite this progress,
more than half a century of independence
passed in the United States before Dorothea
Dix, a teacher from Maine, discovered that in
Massachusetts the insane were being jailed
along with common criminals. Her personal
crusade in the 1840s led to a flurry of institutional
expansion and reform in her own country,
in Canada, and in Great Britain.
While these pioneering humanitarian efforts
tended to improve conditions, one unplanned
result was a gradual emphasis on centralised,
state-supported facilities in which sufferers
were sequestered, often far from family and
friends. Largely kept from public scrutiny,
the unfortunate inmates of what fashionably
were being called mental hospitals increasingly
became victims of the old forms of maltreatment
3.2. Modern approaches
The modern mental-health movement received
its first impetus from the energetic leadership
of a former mental patient in Connecticut,
Clifford Whittingham Beers. First published in 1908 his account of
what he endured "A Mind That Found Itself",
continues to be reprinted in many languages,
inspiring successive generations of students,
mental-health workers, and laymen to promote
improved conditions of psychiatric care in
local communities, in schools, and in hospitals.
With the support of prominent persons, including
distinguished professionals, Beers in 1908
organised the Connecticut Society for Mental
Hygiene, the first association of its kind.
In its charter, members were charged with
responsibility for the same pursuits that
continue to concern mental-health associations
to this day: improvement of standards of
care for the mentally disturbed, prevention
of mental disorder and retardation, the conservation
of mental health and the dissemination of
sound information. In New York City less
than a year later, on February 19, 1909 Beers
led in forming the National Committee for
Mental Hygiene, which in turn was instrumental
in organising the National Association for
Mental Health in 1950.
While philosophic and scientific bases for
an international mental-health movement were
richly available, Beers seems to have served
as a "catalytic spark". Charles Darwin and his contemporaries already had shattered
traditional beliefs in an immutable human
species with fixed potentialities. By the
time Beers began his public agitation was
the beginning to be understood that developing
children need not suffer some of the crippling
constraints imposed on their parents. A newly
emerging scientific psychology had revealed
some of the mechanisms by which the environment
had its effects on individual adjustment,
fostering hopes that parents and community
could provide surroundings that would enhance
the growth and welfare of children beyond
levels once thought possible. In this spirit,
the mental-health movement early inspired
the establishment of child-guidance clinics
and programs of education for parents and
for the public in general.
Psychiatric and psychological developments
during and after World War I. provided fresh
impetus to the movement. Over the same period
the European development of psychoanalysis,
initiated by Sigmund Freud (see before) in
Vienna, placed heavy emphasis on childhood
experiences as major determinants of psychiatric
symptoms and led world-wide to increasing
public awareness of psychological and social-environmental
elements as primary factors in the development
of mental disorders.
3.3. International organisations and national
Beers formed an International Committee for
Mental Hygiene in 1919. By 1930, the time
of the First International Congress of Mental
Hygiene in Washington, D.C., there were mental-hygiene
societies in 25 countries. In London at the
third international congress in 1948, the
World Federation for Mental Health was formed.
It provides consultants and shares informal
reciprocal functions with several United
Nations agencies, including the World Health
Organisation (in which a mental-health unit
was established in 1949). The federation
has convened international study groups and
expert committees, held regional and international
meetings, and developed close contacts with
mental-health workers worldwide. In almost
every country there is increasing recognition
of the interrelationship between mental health,
population pressures, and social unrest.
With growing urgency, people almost everywhere
seek to promote mental health and to educate
the public to pursue conditions conducive
to individual growth and peaceful development.
For more than a century before World War
II, the mental hospitals of many countries
had been the responsibility of local government.
Under the British National Health Service
Act of 1946, however, the task of providing
hospital care fell almost completely on the
national government through boards of hospital
administration acting as regional agencies
for the Ministry of Health. In the same year,
existing privately supported mental-health
organisations combined to form the (U.K.)
National Association for Mental Health. This
voluntary national group provides resident
facilities for disturbed persons, offers
follow-up services, and trains mental-health
personnel, in addition to carrying on educational
programs. The Mental Health Act of 1959 nullified
earlier British laws governing policies toward
psychiatric disturbance and retardation.
The act provided that a person requiring
treatment for a psychological disorder could
obtain it in a hospital on the same basis
as any medical complaint. Community mental-health
services were placed under the jurisdiction
of local health authorities working in close
association with hospital and outpatient
centres. British research into mental-health
problems is mainly under the direction of
the government-financed Medical Research
Provisions for treating and caring for mentally
disturbed persons and for encouraging mental
hygiene are generally organised in this manner
over most of the continent of Europe. In
communist countries (like Hungary before
1990), the state, either through the central
or regional governments, had the task of
providing and maintaining facilities for
disturbed or retarded persons. In countries
of the European Economic Community government
shares its mental-health function with religious
groups or with other non-governmental agencies.
Many innovative mental-health services have
been initiated in Europe, including the concept
of integrated community services, the use
of tranquillising drugs, the sheltered workshop
and the employment of non-professional workers
in positions of responsibility. Imported
European ideas combined with the traditional
reliance on self-improvement and adjustment
already present in Canadian and U.S. culture
to give the mental-health movement in those
countries additional momentum in the 1930s
and early 1940s.
World War II and the post-war problems of
returning veterans stimulated further public
interest in mental health. The mental-health
movement and the mass media discovered each
other, and a flood of exposé swept
Canada and the United States, notably Albert
Deutsch's "The Shame of the States" in
1948. Published in 1946, Mary Jane Ward's book "The Snake Pit" became
a Hollywood film success and was followed
by many more honestly realistic portrayals
of mental problems on screen and television.
A psychodynamic approach to the understanding
and guidance of children infused North American
popular culture. The introduction of pharmacotherapy
(e.g., tranquillising and mood-elevating
drugs) stimulated further progress.
In 1946 the passage of the National Mental
Health Act in the United States made possible
the creation of the National Institute of
Mental Health (NIMH) in 1949 within what
later became the Department of Health and
Human Services. State hospital systems were
reorganised with increased budgets, while
significant federal funds were made available
for research, training and clinical facilities.
NIMH is the major funding resource in the
United States for basic and applied research
in mental health and in the behavioural sciences
for demonstration projects, and for the training
of mental-health professionals. It has developed
special programs in a broad range of social
problem areas from drug addiction to suicide
prevention. The National Clearinghouse for
Mental Health Information - operated by NIMH
- is a valuable resource, as is the periodical
publication Mental Health Digest. Additional
sources of support for mental health in the
United States include the National Institute
of Child Health and Human Development, the
Veterans Administration, the Department of
Education, the Social and Rehabilitation
Service, the National Science Foundation
and the medical sections of the Department
of Defense. Charitable foundations also have
provided generous support over the years.
The psychiatric and the school mental hygiene
has a useful operational model what named
after the author Dr. Deno, The Deno-waterfall-theory (Gerevich, József:
The school's mental hygiene p.77.), 2. Figure
The essential of the model is that the clinical
methods are the last one what it should be
used. Before using the clinical method we
should try to take care of the person in
many different "soft ways".
4. How to take care of the mental hygienic
problems at the different level of personal-
Marx and Engels' writings, particularly Das Kapital (1867-94),
The German Ideology (London ed., 1938) and
The Communist Manifesto (1848) have reshaped
the world. Millions have been inspired by
their vision of unalienated work and education.
Unfortunately, like many influential ideas,
they have been abused and distorted. Several
states have tried to bring about a Communist
utopia through collectivist coercion and
social manipulation in a distortion of Marx's
arguments. There is a need for state intervention
to remove gross inequalities and to expand
opportunities, in Marx's view, but ultimately
human regeneration is a task for each individual.
In the previous parts I wrote about two regeneration
1.) The "family model community"
where every member could start their own
2.) The person has his/her own duty, task,
function, role and place in the community.
But there is a 3rd line too:
3.) This 3rd line is what we could call an
identification-line of cognition. This could
be a base of a "thinking-workshop"
for people how want to do an "intellectual
activity". During this process they
will find out what is identity, duty etc.
These three usually interweave with each
other and they are the result of each other.
The next part is a result of a "thinking-workshop"
what was started by Eric Berne (transactional
analysis) but his thinking was effected many
4.2. The development of the "human-system"
"What is the necessary and sufficient
condition to get "steady wisdom?"
Bhagawan says "Self-realisation"
is both necessary and sufficient. When we
see, hear, touch, smell or taste an "object"
we create an "image" in our mind
and that image stays, though the object may
no longer available. The "like"
and "dislike" of objects experienced
by the sense organs (eye, ear, mouth, nose
and skin) become permanent. The mind agitation
starts at the very moment of contact of the
objects by the sense organs. The one and
only way to control the mind (keep steady
mind) is to control the senses that contacted
those objects (illusions!). According to
advaita, the object is an illusion and the
subject is "real." The SUBJECT
(Consciousness) controls the sense organs
and we should direct our attention to the
subject rather than the object. Bhagwan says
that if you direct your attention to the
subject then you will realise that the object
"never exists!" In Vedanta, only
the subject controls the sense organs and
self-realisation is the necessary and sufficient
condition for controlling the senses and
attaining steady mind."
- Bhagavad Gíta: interpretation -(Bhagavad
Gíta p. 103.)
The "human-system" has different
* Every level has a number (from 1-5), but
the levels are not always in this order.
Every person could be in one level in one
time, but another time s/he could be in another
level of the system, depends on the situation.
* The other hand is that not every person
could use all the levels; this is depends
on the state of development (of the person).
* The levels are not fix, they are continuously
* The levels from 1-4 usually part of everybody's
life in adulthood, but just a few who could
reach the 5th level.
1st level: the "Kaosz"
Feature: distrust and uncertainty. We don't
have real roles in this level, or if we have
they are not personal roles. For example:
the postman takes our letters etc. but we
usually don't have a personal contact with
him. He has his role as a "postman",
but it's more a "job" then a role-play.
His importance is the letter what he brings
to us, not his personality.
2nd level: the "Role"
Feature: the key-sentence is "how we
have to behave...?";
This level could be bureaucratic and conform,
the key word is "must and had to...".
Right after our birth we have the first role
"the baby". Every culture has his
own "baby role", what shows us
how a "good baby has to behave"
and after when we slowly grown up time to
time many new role and role-play wait for
us to study and to be used. Many different
situations has his own roles what someone
has to play...
3rd level: the "Game"
The main question in this level: "who
makes the rules, and what kind of rules s/he
has to make?" The communication-manipulation
is entering in this level. "How can
I enforce my own way against others?"
4th level: the "Humanistic level"
The Self is accepting her/him-self and undertakes
his/her own idea and conception. Feature:
a "new language" between partners
what includes sincerity, confidence and trust.
In this "new language" the basic
word is "You and I" (from Buber, M.: "I and Thou"; 1991. Europa
Inc) together like one word, not Me or You.
The single mode is the individual who chooses
to live within himself the loner. The dual
mode occurs when two people unite in feeling
for each other. (Since the early years of
the 20th century, Martin Buber has exercised
a powerful influence on both Jews and non-Jews.
In his early period Buber was led, partly
through empathy with Jewish and non-Jewish
mysticism, to stress unitive experience and
knowledge, in which the difference between
one man and another and between man and God
tend to disappear. But in his final period
he taught, following, as he claimed, a suggestion
of Ludwig Feuerbach, a 19th-century German philosopher, that
man can only realise himself as a human being
in a relation with another, who may be another
man or God.) This conception of the "I
and You" relationship leads to the formulation
of Buber's view of the dialogical life -
the mutual, responsive relation between man
and others - and accounts for the importance
that he attaches to the category of "encounter."
The communication partners admit each other
existence and autonomy. Another keyword is
the "affection". This is the point
when the Self takes over itself because of
the "Other". "The Love is a Care, the Care is a
Responsibility, but the Responsibility needs
Respect, because without respect it is changing
to be a possession." (Fromm, E.: The art of loving p. 38-41.)
5th level: the "Transpersonality"
The keyword in this level is: "WE",
what shows us that we can't live alone in
our life; the human being is a social being.
The feature is in this level that "we
are one, we are the part of each other life".
This is the level of the "cosmic faith",
this is the level of "collective wisdom".
Here the "You" and "I"
become "We." The plural mode is
when an individual interacts with others.
Finally, the mode of anonymity occurs when
an individual loses him-self in a crowd or
disassociates his feelings from others. The
American psychologist Rollo May believed
psychology had neglected the basic nature
of man as a being who does the experiencing
and to whom the experiences happen. To May,
man's awareness of his own mortality makes
vitality and passion possible.
4.3. The stairs of the community development
To make a new community is not to difficult,
but to make it a well-organised community;
it is a long time and lots of energy. There
are many rules and developmental levels what
they have to pass during by. The next community
developmental level system is an open-system.
It means continuously changing and developing,
"everything what is alive always changing"
(Kung Fu-ce In: Szimonidesz L.: The world of religion p.154.).
The process-system of the community development:
1. The basic group lead by a central-person:
The leader has a personal contact with all
members. His aim is to be accepted by all
members. The other hand is, that the members
need someone whom has knowledge to lead them
to then next level. The feature in this group
is the "trust" (Pannenberg, W.: i.m. p. 27.).
2. The Family-model community:
The best position if the leader invite the
members (if there is too many: personally
or in small groups, if not: together) to
his own social-environment, to his own home.
The leader like a "father" takes
care of them, they meet in his/her place,
where they are "safe", and slowly
everyone has a duty in the "family".
3. The Problem-community:
The members are slowly open towards the leader
and each other, they find out that day have
common problems what they could solve together
to use the other's help. They feel they are
not alone with their problem.
4. The Action-community:
This is one of the biggest qualitative step
in the community development. This is the
level of the collective-activity, when the
members start to organise their work. They
start to use community-techniques and they
draft draw up their purpose and target. This
is the level where the members study how
to use different problem-solving technique
and study duty-realisation. With these technique
they are able to solve different problems
in the same time and after the success-experience
is also joint. But the leader has still big
responsibility to manage the group work.
5. The Function-community:
From this level the community has its own
directive-system and constitution. Every
member has a function depending on his/her
ability. The personal identity is also developing
and become stronger in this level. Everybody
has to make small decision on his/her own
and take the responsibility of it. The personal
differences are appears and it could effect
the community development both ways: positive
or negative. The members have to study how
to solve different clash/conflict of interests.
They have to control their ego and personal
6. The Interest-community:
In this level they make a high level community
agreement and harmony, this will help to
study and feel the community "WE are"-
consciousness. They get much information
about them-self from the social-environment
as a negative feedback as a social-mirror.
After they feel that they are the owners
of their own community, they are a part of
something what need them.
7. The Independent-community:
In this level they are a self-supporting
community. They have more and more real working
contact with the outside word and surroundings.
They make new contact with other communities;
they make some programs together if the two
communities have something common. They are
ready for an external-communication and relationship
8. The Political-community or Central-movement-formation:
In this case the "political" attribute's
meaning is equal with the "policy"-world.
The "policy" has a community meaning:
to make effort to build and put into practice
different strategy in the interest of different
purpose. This is very important because the
other world "politics" has a different
meaning like "be in power/office".
But this level is the level of "thinking-wisdom"
where they don't want to take over or push
down other communities just to have bigger
power. They make decisions and they are considering
other's interests. Very important the level
of the communication between different communities,
because different level makes difference
of opinion. In this level the community has
a central-management and different small-subgroup.
The central-management co-ordinate, co-operates
with others, makes the final decisions and
values the results. (4. Table Ve-Ga ®)
5. "6CIA"-method (6 Category Intervention
The original model:
John Heron made the 6 CIA Method in the Surrey University's
"Human Potential Research Project"
framework. They used this method to train
different professionals who deal with "special
needs people". This method makes better
interpersonal-communication ability for them
and after they could more effectively help
for others (Rúzsa, Ágota: 6KIA Training 1994). This
method helps in the real practice for doctors,
psychologists, social workers, teacher etc.
by examining their behaviour and intention
during the communication. The method gives
us 6 basic intentions what could appear between
Helper (professional) and Helped (client)
person. In the next part I try to explain
how we could use this method in Education
especially Special education.
5.1. The system and structure of the essential
Intervention: in this case the meaning is
to "offer a help to someone", but
we call it intervention because it's happening
in the verbal or non-verbal communication
The intervention could be 3 kinds:
1. Straight question (question words);
2. Open question (description);
3. Premediated (with intention).
The intervention is an intention between
the two person (Helper and Helped) what realised
in a communication strategy.
It is very important to keep the balance
between the two main intervention group (I
and II). If we use the balance of power we
could use the next rules:
1. The Helped person has his own autonomy
and the "helpless" gives him/her
the "power" because s/he needs
our help. Everybody knows who had a new-born
(baby) that how strong is s/he, because to
be "helpless" gives the power to
move everyone around him/her. All family
member running for the baby, working for
the baby. Our case is something similar.
2. The Helper also has a kind of power: the
power of the knowledge.
3. The 3rd rule is "to share the power"
with the Helped person.
4. Always the situation, the context shows
to the Helper which intervention has s/he
The traditional education usually uses to
many times the I. authoritative interventions
especially the informative offers, but not
really use II. facilitative interventions.
The "alternative educational line"
usually uses the II. facilitative interventions
and they try not to use many time the I.
authoritative interventions. But in this
case sometimes they lose control in the school,
because they don't use at all the authentic
hierarchy positive power.
The Offers of the Helper
- Prescriptive offers: advise, suggest, and recommend;
- Informative offers: gives new knowledge, explain and interpret
- Confrontative offers: confront the Helped person with his/her
- Cathartic offers: absolve from the frustration, open and help
- Catalytic offers: bring knowledge and information to the
surface, help to solve the problems (with
different techniques), use the personal fantasies
- Supporting Offers: support the identity development-process,
fortify and make stronger the personal worth.
(Berne, E.: Human Games p.19.)
Two word is very important in the middle
of the circle the Empathy and the Trust.
Empathy: the ability to imagine oneself in
another's place and understand the other's
feelings, desires, ideas, and actions. It
is a term coined in the early 20th century,
equivalent to the German Einfühlung
and modelled on "sympathy." The
term is used with special (but not exclusive)
reference to aesthetic experience. The most
obvious example perhaps is that of the actor
or singer who genuinely feels the part he
is performing. With other works of art, a
spectator may by a kind of interjection feel
himself involved in what he observes or contemplates.
The use of empathy is an important part of
the counselling technique developed by the
American psychologist Carl Rogers.
Trust (confidence): What enabled 19th-century
culture to pursue the scientific quest and
regain confidence in spiritual truth was
the work of the German idealist philosophers,
beginning with Immanuel Kant. (Pannenberg, W.: i. m. p.26.)
5.1.1. The Prescriptive Offers
The prescriptive offers aim is to turn on
the Helped person's attention to him/her-self.
* Demonstration, advice, orders (command),
Important notice: If the Helper use the Prescriptive
offers too many times the Helped person may
become dependence and lose the chance of
From all professions the Army and the Education
use this offers mostly.
The "self-sentence" (I think...
If I were you...etc) is very important during
the usage of these offers.
The "3 steps confrontation self-sentence"
model by Gordon, T.:
I. To control and speak about the other's
II. What do I feel during this I. (if I am
III. What kind of consequence is coming after
How could we attain the consultation level
from the direct command?
* to use the best grammatical forms what
good for the situation and for the Helped
* the meta-communication could make us stronger
or could make us weak;
If we reach the point of consultation we
could very easily start to use the Catalytic
5.1.2. The Informative Offers
The Informative Offers' aim is to give useful
knowledge and information to the Helped person
for his/her interest and claim. Important
notice: If the Helper use the informative
offers too many times (we can find it in
usual schools) the Helped person may become
disinterested about knowledge and lose the
chance of self-control study and motivation.
The information is power especially at the
end of this century.
The information has many components:
* When, how, to who, what is a purpose, which
language level they use, where, how many
times they have for it etc. The teacher is
the "owner of the knowledge", the
student is the receiver and user of it. In
this case the teacher is "the owner
of the Power", it means s/he has to
know how to use it successfully. The information's
quantity is an important point, if:
5.1.3. The Confrontative Offers
Confrontation: a state of conflict between
two antagonistic forces, creeds, or ideas
etc. This intervention confronts the Helped
person with him/her-self and behaviour. This
helps the person to get information about
him/her-self, how others looking at him/her.
It is very important that these offers unasked
and based on a supposing. We have to be careful
to use it, because it could be shock-able,
aggressive and could make anxiety. Important
that we use it in a good time and place,
it must be targeting but with supporting
background. The Helper has to give time and
space for the Helped person for procession.
Some Confrontative offers:
* negative feedback
* call the Helped person's attention to an
* particular questions;
* the language of discussion;
* returning and repeating;
5.1.4. Cathartic Offers
The aim of the cathartic offers to exempt
the tension, what misrepresenting the Helped
person's behaviour. It is very important
to help the emotions to "come out",
to "discharge" them sometimes.
That is one of the reasons why people go
to theatre, read books, poems or watching
"touching" movies. Also important
what's happening inside of the person during
these actions. The cathartic offers could
change positively basic attitudes and sometimes
deeply affect the personality.
E.g. one method of the Cathartic Offers is
the emotions' transmutation (TM), then the
frustration's energy transformed - by an
action - to a positive energy.
The next picture shows us the different method
of the Cathartic Offers in a circle.
The list of Cathartic Offers:
* Transmutation (TM.): it could be active or passive. In
the active version of transmutation the person
could e.g. write a poem, in the passive version
to read a poem. The purpose is the same change
something with the emotions; find something
what helps to take over the feelings.
* Expression: to analyse, to speak out the content of
the emotion or frustration.
* Redirection: this activity has a physical direction
e.g. to hit something (wall, door etc.) or
brake something (plate, vase...)
* Discharge: this activity has no direction only a simple
function like: crying, shouting etc.
* Control: to take charge of emotions, moderate suppression,
self-supervising or "positive hold back"
of the emotion. Important notice that this
needs a lots of energy and attention.
* Switch over: to make a kind of activity, what has direction
and needs time, space, situation changing.
E.g. go to run, or training "to work
out" the accumulated energy.
5.1.5. The Catalytic Offers
The aim of the Catalytic offers to help the
Helped person during the self-development
process, when s/he study her/him-self, to
teach different techniques for self-control,
One of the techniques the "open question".
E.g. "What kind of memory do you have
about school?" Also important the "here
and now"-principle. Everything what
now happening is between us and everything
only here and now effective.
a.) simple reflection (echo)
----------------------------a.) and b.) Do
not has question stress
b.) selective reflection
c.) open question - closed question: every
question must be "client-centered".(C.
d.) empathic construction: to use the empathy
as an active device.
e.) logical construction: to use the "active
attention" as a device (T. Gordon).
5.1.6. The Supporting Offers
The Supporting Offers' aim is to make stronger
the Helped person's personality: worth, attribute,
act, self-creation etc. The Helper's personality
must be kind, friendly, empathic, encouraging,
intimate, authentic and careful. Also could
use physical "movements" like smile,
touch, caressing and embrace.
This circle is not finished, everyone using
different supporting offers, so someone uses
the same, someone uses different ones. The
Helper has not to use too many times these
supporting, because sometimes the Helped
person has to find his own way alone, fight
with his/her problems alone, but when s/he
really needs help, that is the time for the
Helper. This is the hard part, to know when
we have to give a help and when we don't
have to help, but this is coming with the
practice and the empathy always help us.
Our life in every level a kind of "Community
Life", we always belong to a bigger
or smaller community, in every community
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birth. This system is already a kind of "supporting-net",
where not working usually any professional,
but they also could help us. It is a fact
that we can realise our-selves from the others,
if they are not me, I am a different being.
I am a Human, who lives together with others,
and I can be an individual being only because
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