Formation of Different Levels in Community Development and Its Mental Hygienic Effect on the Person's Identity

Tóth Gábor (1997. ELTE Pedagogia - Master Thesis Summary )


1. Introduction
2. Content-, conceptual approach and framework
2.1. Emotional life and psychical-constitutional health
2.1.1. The Family
2.1.2. The family and the School
2.1.3. The Family, the School and the Society
3. Mental hygiene
3.1. Early institutions
3.2. Modern approach
3.3. International organisations and national agencies
4. How to take care of the mental hygienic problems at the
different level of personal- and community-development

4.1. Regeneration-lines
4.2. The development of the "human-system"
4.3. Stairs of the community development
5. "6CIA"-method (6 Category Intervention Analysis)
5.1. The system and structure of the essential concept
5.1.1. The Prescriptive offers
5.1.2. The Informative offers
5.1.3. The Confrontative offers
5.1.4. The Cathartic offers
5.1.5. The Catalytic offers
5.1.6. The Supporting offers
6. Conclusion
7. Bibliography


"Novalis said: " The person always going home...continuously."... and the Human race is doing the same. Now, we are 5 thousand years closer to our final homecoming, and this enormous symphony has only one big theme, what is very simple: to be a Human being. Just like if we only pretend to be human, but we are still not. Although we would like to be a human, but now we are living from the advance of our lately human being. Now we are just peculiar being. We are living alone both from the animal kingdom and the spiritual world in a fatal separation. We do not have any relation with them any more, and we still cannot find and accomplish a real-ourselves, which is living somewhere very deeply inside of us.
No one from us is living for and in the present moment, because in this moment we are always living for our tomorrow and a day after tomorrow. We take our destiny to the future, and believe that tomorrow we could reach the point where we find the real life. But this continuous wish makes us an endless desire. Nothing enough, anything could reassure us about our life. Nothing can be done, neither pleasure, ecstasy, money, fame or power, all are in vain; because we all wish a peaceful life and we would like to be that mystic human who is living inside of our mind."
(Hamvas, B.: Anthologia humana 436.p.)

1. Introduction

If I would like to write down what is the purpose of this thesis I would have a little difficulty to make this explanation. Like the famous writer and philosopher in the Motto, I would like to find how could we make our life better, how could we help to each other. The aim of this thesis is to examine that how appears the mental hygiene in different level of community and how it affects the person's identity in the community.

The thesis has three main parts. In the firs part I try to find definitions and basic inherence for and between the mental hygiene and community development. In the second part I write down a community development line's characteristic points and a practicable system. Last but not least the third part, where I try to write down a very well working communication model, between the special teacher (as a helper) and the special needs (as a helped person, client) person. The "special needs" meaning in this case is the person who is mentally retarded, who has mental disorder, psychical problem, personality disorder etc. My purpose with this structure is to show a way from the purely theoretical starts to a completely finished and well working practice. I hope that this work could help many special teachers to understand the rules and alternative possibility of a community development and the personal identity formation, to understand and teach more easily handicapped people.

2. Content-, conceptual approach and framework

Every historical age has a kind of psychical and spiritual help, because always been a kind of person who wanted to help others for different reasons. Therefore, if this action was not always a well-organised mental hygienic help, but someone did it from the heart. It means that every age has own resort to help. These people were medicine men, priests, doctor etc. They were all different but what they did is the same: try to help others, who need them. They did it as a voluntary work, as a community service or as a profession, depends on the country and age. (*See 3.1.)

2.1. Emotional life and psychical-constitutional health

"Soul? What is that...?
The soul is the "nothing" what could
Diddle the world out of it's own pole,
To make real the "something".
Hereby the No is change to be a Yes,
The meaningless is changed to be a sense."

(Popper, Péter: How could we kill ourselves? p.84.)

Everybody wants to be happy and try to make the own harmony between the "soma" (somatic dimension), the psyche (psychic dimension) and the spirit (noetic dimension from Victor Frankl). The physical health, the mental health and the spiritual health are working together and if some of them are not healthy it could influence the others. It means that every human being has a right to get the help if he/she has a problem. This is the law of the nature what gives us the knowledge about itself, which is our power, the magic of thinking. If we know how to help we have to help, if we don't know how to help we have to make an effort to find out, to find the way of it. But we all have to accept ourselves in different situations, status and position and after all others. This is the basic act to be a human and to find our identity. In this case the "Identity" is to find out our:
1. Place,
2. Aim (purpose) and
3. Duty
These three makes our identity (I use the identity, as Eric H. Erikson used it in his theory).
The next step is to make our own constitutional health as a mental hygienic health. When do we know that we have it? When our personal problems and tolerance level have a balance. If between this two we have a strained relation and the person could not solve it on his/her own, the mental hygienic health is going to break down and he/she will need help. If this problem is not individual, because many others have the same or similar problem they will need a Helper person, who could show them the way out of the problems. This is one kind of action when a community makes itself around a Helper person and a common problem. This happened in our history many times, sometimes the Helper was not the best person with the best ideas, but the fact is, that he could show a kind of way out for people who have identity and mental hygienic problem. This is the base in our time too why new sects and splinter groups still could come up. It shows us the first community rule: usually common problem makes a group and that is the basic of a new community. They make common cause with each other and identify themselves with a Helper. In this case the Helper's personality (could be a teacher) is always a key of the community and it's future. This second community rule makes attention on the Helper's knowledge and intelligence. This is the point where we know: that if we are teachers and we have a group of children in our "hands", our knowledge and helping motivation is one of the most important "key" for the group development, what makes them later a dynamic community.

It is very interesting to examine the question that what kind of factors makes our mental hygienic health, and what kind of factors makes our behaviour-attributes. For a long time people thought that the inheritance makes all of it. Béla Buda wrote: "This conclusion was the basic of the aristocratic ideology, it follows that all the rights, land and money is inherited and the inheritor has all the attributes what he/she needs to be a new leader." (Buda, Béla: The personality development... p.13.) In our times is still a question that how many percent is the function of the inheritance in the person's behaviour and how strongly is dominated by these facts (genetics factors). The other important factor is the acquired attributes what influences our behaviour. For example these factors we could get across different type of sicknesses usually by mental sicknesses or disorders. In the last 30 years the role of the adopted attributes is more important than before. The psychology scientists made many examinations about this subject. In this case we speak about the social environment, personal model or idea and some years ago we started to think, that the intrauterine-life time is also very important to get information and different influences from the closest environmental.

A theory of development should reflect an attempt to relate behavioural change to chronological age; that is, diverse behavioural characteristics should be related to specific stages of growth. The rules governing the transitions between these growth states also must be identified. The dominant developmental theories are Freud's theory of personality development and Piaget's theory of perception and cognition. Both explain human development in terms of interactions of biological determinants and environmental events. Freud's theory is based on the concept that a healthy personality requires the satisfaction of instinctual needs. In Freudian theory the personality is composed of the id, ego, and superego. The id is the source of instinctual drives. The role of the ego is to cope with the demands of the id while remaining within the rules of society, which in turn are represented by the superego. The physical focus of instinctual-needs changes with age and the periods of different focus are called stages. Infants for example, achieve maximum id satisfaction from sucking; this is called the oral stage. Children progress through four stages, ending with adult sexuality. Freud clearly integrated biological and environmental variables in his theory. Piaget believed that from birth humans are active learners who do not require external incentives. He proposed that cognitive development occur in four stages. Stage I. Sensorimotor intelligence (birth-2 years), takes the child from unrelated reflexive movements to behaviour that reflects knowledge of simple concepts. Stage II. Pre-operational thought (2-7 years) is characterised by an increasing use of abstract symbols as reflected in imaginative play. Stage III. Concrete operational thought (7-11 years), involves relatively sophisticated problem-solving behaviour and attainment of adult thought. Stage IV. Formal operational thought (12 years and older) is characterised by the ability to develop hypotheses and deduce new concepts.

The various aspects of child development encompass physical growth, emotional and psychological changes, and social adjustments. A great many determinants influence patterns of development and change. Now, we could generally agreed that patterns of child development are determined by the joint interaction of genetics and the environment, although sharp disagreements occur about the relative importance of an individual's genetic makeup. Research on this problem involves the use of separately reared monozygotic (identical) twins. Their behaviours are compared for similarities and differences, and the results are then compared with behaviours of twins reared together. If genetics is critical, the twins reared apart will be as similar in most respects as those reared together. (These studies usually assume that when twins are reared apart, their environments are different in important ways, an assumption that is not always true.) Except in instances of massive environmental deprivation, the patterns and rates of physical and motor development appear to be genetically controlled. Research also indicated that both genetic and environmental variables contribute to intellectual behaviour. A genetic component also exists in personality characteristics such as introversion and extroversion, activity level and predisposition to psychoses. Many advances have been made in identifying the genetic causes of mental illness, but more research is needed to understand better how genetic mechanisms operate among normal children. All of these facts (inheritance, acquired and adopted attributes) infects and creates our personal behaviour. Because we are not adults right after the birth we have to study, examine and develop ourselves to find out our attributes and ability. For this we need many help from our parents and family, and also from our teachers. They are all Helpers in our life. The teacher's classical and origin meaning is come from the Greek word "peidagogos", what's meaning is something like "child's guardian". His/her duty is to take care of the child, to make a safe environment, to teach for life and also different scientific knowledge. Both Plato and Aristotle wrote about children. Plato believed that children are born with special talents and then their training should stress those talents. His views are consistent with modern thinking about individual differences and education. Aristotle proposed methods for observing children's behaviour that were forerunners of modern methods. For many centuries thereafter, little interest was shown in the development of children because they were regarded only as miniature adults. In the 18th century the French philosopher Jean Jacques Rousseau seemed to echo Plato, when he stated that children should be free to express their energies in order to develop their special talents. His view suggests that normal development is occurs best in a non-restrictive and supportive environment. Similar concepts are popular today.

The school is a kind of "social drill ground" where the children study not only scientific knowledge but all the social behaviour and in there they could practice what already got from there own family. The family and later the school system's duty is to prepare the children for the self-supported, independent and real social life. This has two very important requirements:
1. Social integration
2. Independent creation
The teacher's duty is to make the adequate and suitable condition for the child for his/her development and study progress. The teacher's aim is that the child who is his/her student becomes an independent person who has self-supported ideas and could integrate to the "adult's" social life. The teacher's devices are:
1. s/he has to give him/herself as a model;
2. to give suitable information;
3. to give motivation;
4. arouse children's curiosity for new things and help them to get knowledge of it.
Cognitive theories of motivation assume that behaviour is directed as a result of the active processing and interpretation of information. Motivation is not seen as a mechanical or innate set of processes but as a purposive and persistent set of behaviours based on the information available. Expectations, based on past experiences, serve to direct behaviour toward particular goals. Motivation popularly is thought to be essential to learning. Yet many theorists suggest that motives make little or no direct contribution - that they simply tend to promote practice. To show that motivation affects performance of what has been learned is not the same as demonstrating its effect on the process of learning itself. This would require that individuals learn under various levels of motivation and be tested under the same incentive levels. (This is to control for the effects of motivation on performance alone.) Indeed, the best-controlled experiments of this design indicate learning effects to be the same under different levels of motivation. Important concepts of cognitive motivation theory include expectancy-value theory, attribution theory, cognitive dissonance, self-perception, and self-actualisation (A. Maslow).
Self: the "I" as experienced by an individual. In modern psychology the notion of the self has replaced earlier conceptions of the soul. The concept of the self has been a central feature of many personality theories, including those of Sigmund Freud, Alfred Adler, Carl Jung, Gordon W. Allport, Carl Rogers, Rollo May and Abraham H. Maslow.
According to Carl Jung the self is a totality consisting of conscious and unconscious contents that dwarfs the ego in scope and intensity. The maturation of the self is the individuation process, which is the goal of the healthy personality. C. Rogers theorised that a person's self-concept determines his behaviour and his relation to the world, and that true therapeutic improvement occurs only when the individual changes his own self-concept. R. May's approach was similarly existential; he conceived the self as a dynamic entity, alive with potentiality. A. Maslow's theory of self-actualisation was based on a hierarchy of needs and emphasised the highest capacities or gratification of a person. The Humanistic psychology is the 20th-century movement in psychology, what believes that man, as an individual is a unique being. The movement grew in opposition to the two mainstream 20th-century trends in psychology: behaviourism and psychoanalysis. Humanistic psychologists believe, that behaviourists are over-concerned with the scientific study and analysis of the actions of man, as an organism to the neglect of basic aspects of man as a feeling, thinking individual. Too much effort is spent in laboratory research, which quantifies and reduces human behaviour to its elements. Humanists also take issue with the deterministic orientation of psychoanalysis, which postulates that man's early experiences and drives determine his behaviour. Humanists tend to believe that the individual is responsible for his life and actions, and may at any time creatively change his attitudes or behaviour through awareness and will. The humanist is concerned with the fullest growth of the individual in the areas of love (Erich Fromm: The Art of Loving), fulfillment, self-worth (Eric Berne: Games People Play), and autonomy. The Association for Humanistic Psychology lists five basic postulates: "man as man supersedes the sum of his parts; man has his being in a human context; man is aware; man has choice; and man is intentional."
C. Rogers stresses that in the development of an individual's personality he strives for "self-actualization (to become oneself), self-maintenance (to keep on being oneself), and self-enhancement (to transcend the status quo)." (C. Rogers: A Way of Being)

"The ancient educational wisdom said that the proper education has 3 facts:
1. instruction
2. accustoming
3. to be an example (exemplary)
The first one sometimes not enough, the second one has some compulsion; therefore the third one is what we could call the "deepest" method. For this third one is inevitable the teacher personality, he/she has to motivate and induce the children to imitation." (Weninger, Antal: On the shore of the Time - Yoga and personality p.42-43.)
The next figure shows us (Figure 1.) a "Socialisation Model" (by Korom, Pál: VE-GA). This figure is a model of the optimal case of socialisation in all basic "ground" in society. We can find the basic social-claim of the person during the socialisation process. If this process is consciously controlled, we can call it "educational process". But if during the process too many demands are unsatisfied we could have many mental hygienic problems.
1.) Socialisation Model (VE-GA)

2.1.1. The Family

The family performs various valuable functions for its members. Perhaps most important of all, it provides for emotional and psychological security, particularly through the warmth, love, and companionship that living together generates between spouses and in turn between them and their children. The family also provides a valuable social and political function by institutionalising procreation and by providing guidelines for the regulation of sexual conduct. The family additionally provides such other socially beneficial functions as the rearing and socialisation of children, along with such humanitarian activities as caring for its members when they are sick or disabled. On the economic side, the family provides food, shelter, clothing, and physical security for its members, many of who may be too young or too old to provide for the basic necessities of life themselves. Finally, on the social side the family may serve to promote order and stability within society as a whole.

The nuclear or conjugal family is the basic unit of family organisation in virtually every society. It is generally defined as a married couple and their children (including adopted and fostered children, as well as the couple's natural children). Other forms of family organisation, such as compound and joint families are in a sense built upon the nuclear family or contain units comparable to it in their structure. In many modern societies the nuclear family is identical to the typical household unit. Members of the nuclear family share the same dwelling place, usually a single house or apartment. In agricultural societies the nuclear family is often the primary unit of production, sharing tasks and taking collective responsibility for the income that sustains them. In both agricultural and other types of communities, the nuclear family is almost always the primary unit of economic consumption. One or both parents and sometimes children earn money outside the home and then share at least some of the fruits of their labour with the family as a whole.

The attitudes, values, and behaviours of parents toward their children clearly influence patterns of development. Likewise, children's characteristics influence parental attitudes and behaviours; handicapped children, for example, require more attention and cause more parental anxiety than do normal children.
Extensive studies have established that parental behaviours toward children vary widely, ranging from destructiveness to permissiveness, warmth to hostility and anxious involvement to calm detachment. These variations in attitudes produce different patterns in family relationships. Parental hostility and permissiveness for example are associated with highly aggressive, non-compliant children. Warm, restrictive behaviour by parents is associated with dependent, polite and obedient children. Punishment techniques also influence behaviour. For example, parents who often use physical punishment tend to have children who rank above average in their use of physical aggression. It appears then; that one of the ways children acquires patterns of behaviour is by imitating their parents. The entire psychological tendency agrees that the family is the most important community in our personality development, and one of the most important parts of the early childhood and the family-attachments. In this matter the family is one of the most important mental hygienic community. The family could save us against sickness or it could cause trouble to us. The family gives us all the basic information about world, life and death, love and hate; it could be our "supportive-net" against the stress-effects of the outside.
This "supporting-net-system" has some criteria:
* the person is an "individuum",
* the supportive-net "personally" interested about the person,
* the safety net "speaks the same language",
* open expectations,
* open criticise of the achievement,
* reward and punishment has the same worth
(Komlósi, Piroska: The supportive and damaging influences of the Family...p.23.)
All these show us that the supportive system is sensitive for the person own needs.

Parental behaviour affects the child's personality and his likelihood of developing psychological problems. The most important qualities in this regard are whether and how parents communicate their love to a child, the disciplinary techniques they use and their behaviour as role models. There are of course cultural and class differences in the socialisation values held by parents. In most modern societies well-educated parents are more concerned with their children's academic achievement and autonomy, and are generally more democratic than are less well educated parents. No single area of interaction can alone account for parents' influence on a child's behaviour and social functioning. One investigator has emphasised four factors. However: (1) the degree to which parents try to control the child's behaviour, (2) the pressures imposed on the child to perform at high levels of cognitive, social or emotional development, (3) the clarity of parent-child communications, and finally, (4) the parents' nurturance of affection toward the child. Those children who appear to be the most mature and competent tend to have parents who were more affectionate, more supportive, more conscientious, and more committed to their role as parents. These parents were also more controlling and demanded more mature behaviour from their children. Although the parents respected their children's independence, they generally held firm positions and provided clear reasons for them. This parental type is termed authoritative. A second class of children consists of those who are moderately self-reliant but somewhat withdrawn. The parents of these children tended to use less rational control and relied more heavily on coercive discipline. These parents were also slightly less affectionate, and they did not encourage the discussion of parental rules. This parental type is termed authoritarian. The least mature children had parents who were lax in discipline and non-controlling but affectionate. They made few demands on the children for mature behaviour and allowed them to regulate their own activities as much as possible. This parental type is termed permissive.

The effects of divorce on children appear to be very complicated. The major adverse impact of divorce on children is evident during the first year after the divorce and seems to be a bit more enduring for boys than for girls. Pre-school children seem to be most vulnerable to the effect of divorce and adolescents the least.
In most modern industrialised countries the proportion of working mothers with children under 18 greatly increased in the last few decades of the 20th century, to the point that one-half of all mothers with children under 5 are in the workforce. However, there is no clear evidence that this change in Western society has had a profound influence on child development, independent of other historical changes during this same period.
As in the treatment of adult patients, psychiatric treatment of children requires determination of any genetic, constitutional or physical factors that have contributed to the disturbance. It is also essential that the parent-child relationship be assessed for its contribution to the disturbed behaviour. Where parental actions are disruptive or disturbing - as for example, in relationships coloured by alcoholism, hostility, cruelty and neglect, overprotection of the child or excessive ambitions for and expectations of the child - it is common to find behaviour disorders in the children involved. The existence of neurotic, psychotic or psychopathic conditions in the parents often contributes to a faulty parent-child relationship. The death or loss of a parent may also have a lasting effect on a child's emotional growth. Another source of personality problems may be the child's relationship with brothers and sisters. Child psychiatry usually involves some form of family therapy. One of the important processes that mediate a child's self-concept is that of identification; this involves the child's incorporation of the characteristics of parents or other persons by adopting their appearance, attitudes, and behaviour. Children tend to identify with those persons to whom they are emotionally attached and whom they perceive to be similar to themselves in some way. They seem to identify most strongly with parents who are emotionally warm or who are dominant and powerful. The role models children adopt may have negative as well as positive characteristics, however, can thus influence children in undesirable as well as beneficial ways. (Buchmueller, 1955.) " (Gerevich, József: Community mental hygiene, p.10.)

2.1.2. The family and the School

Urbanisation, the reduction of infant mortality, improvements in child health, the fact that families, individuals and whole societies could afford longer and better schooling, growth in the size of populations, greater capacity for control by central and local government, the availability of new kinds of educational apparatus and teaching aids. All these did much to shape the progress of teacher education during the decades after 1900. The three concerns that guided the development of 20th-century education were the child, science and society. So-called progressive education movements supporting child-centred education, scientific-realist education and social reconstruction laid the foundations for this trilogy. The progressive education movement was part and parcel of a broader social and political reform called the Progressive movement, which dates to the last decades of the 19th century and the early decades of the 20th. Elementary education had spread throughout the Western world, largely doing away with illiteracy and raising the level of social understanding. Yet, despite this progress, the schools had failed to keep pace with the tremendous social changes that had been going on. Dissatisfaction with existing schools led several educational reformers who wished to put their ideas into practice to establish experimental schools during the last decade of the 19th century and in the early 20th century. The principal experimental schools in America until 1914 were:
* the University of Chicago Laboratory School (founded in 1896 and directed by John Dewey),
* the Francis W. Parker School (founded in 1901 in Chicago),
* the School of Organic Education at Fairhope (founded by Marietta Johnson in 1907)
* the experimental elementary school at the University of Missouri, Columbia (founded in 1904 by Junius L. Meriam).
The common goal of all was to eliminate the school's traditional stiffness and to break down hard and fast subject-matter lines. Each school adopted an activity program. Each operated on the assumption that education was something, that should not be imposed from without the child, but should draw forth the latent possibilities from within the child, and each believed in the democratic concept of individual worth.
Dewey, whose writings and lectures influenced educators throughout the world, laid the foundations of a new philosophy that continues to affect the whole structure of education, particularly at the elementary level. His theories were expounded in School and Society (1899), The Child and the Curriculum (1902) and Democracy and Education (1916). For Dewey, philosophy and education render service to each other. Education becomes the laboratory of philosophy.

Society should be interpreted to the child through daily living in the classroom, which acts as a miniature society. Education leads to no final end; it is something continuous, "a reconstruction of accumulated experience", which must be directed toward social efficiency. Education is life, not merely a preparation for life. The notions expressed by progressive education have influenced public-school systems everywhere. Some of the movement's lasting effects can be seen in: the activity programs, imaginative writing and reading classes, projects linked to the community, flexible classroom space, dramatics and informal activities, discovery methods of learning, self-assessment systems and programs for the development of citizenship and responsibility found in school systems all over the world.

The teachers who are the members of the teaching profession usually must meet certain basic requirements. The criteria vary from country to country, but generally include going through processes of formal education or training, acquiring specialised knowledge in a particular subject area, securing certification or validation as members of the profession and maintaining standards of performance, that are continually redefined and expanded by the profession. Professional responsibilities vary from country to country and according to the age level taught. General areas of responsibility include active and sometimes conflicting, roles in the school as well as in the community. Parent substitute, confident, disciplinarian, community leader and acceptable behaviour models are a few of the roles that teachers are expected to fulfil. Approximately two-thirds of the world's teachers are women, the great majority being employed on the elementary level. Teachers in modern societies are usually protected in their positions after a period of satisfactory service. Once they have achieved "tenure", their jobs are guaranteed unless proof of incompetence or moral laxity is established.

The teaching profession is a relatively new one; in some societies the occupation has still not attained professional status. Traditionally, parents, elders, religious leaders and sages were responsible for teaching children how to behave, how to think and what to believe. Adults shared in common activities with children who gradually acquired the knowledge, myths and general teaching of their culture. Later, teachers were often those young people who had been successful as students. They learned their craft by observing and practising the methods of their own teachers. Germany introduced the first formal criteria for the education of teachers in the 18th century, setting examples for other countries and paving the way for the establishment of a real profession. Further development came in the 19th century as society became more industrialised and the concept of schooling became more universal. The amount of preparatory or pre-service training required of teachers today varies from country to country and in some cases is still very limited. In the 20th century, not only was teacher education upgraded but efforts to gain professional recognition increased: teachers began to view themselves as educators and organised in an effort to improve their status, their working conditions and the overall quality of educational offerings. The early professional associations were organised according to school type or particular subjects.

School experiences - like family experiences - also can create personality problems. Many children exhibit conduct and learning disturbances because they are emotionally, temperamentally or intellectually unable to learn. Children with perceptual difficulties such as dyslexia, for example, may fail to learn to read or to develop reading skills appropriate to their age level. As a consequence, they often become frustrated and anxious over their failure to meet the standards of their family and their class. They need a kind of therapeutic help. Most therapeutic techniques used with adults are also employed with children, as well as more specialised methods such as play therapy. In the latter, play activities are used as the primary basis for communication between the child and the Helper person (like teacher, therapist etc.). Play activities enable children to express their feelings, thoughts, wishes, and fears more freely and easily than they are able to do through purely verbal communication.

2.1.3. The family, the school and the Society

Socialisation is a process by which people, especially children, learns acceptable and unacceptable behaviours for a given environment. The process by which children learn acceptable and unacceptable behaviour is called socialisation. Children are expected to learn, for example, that extreme physical aggression, stealing, and cheating are unacceptable, and that co-operation, honesty, and sharing are acceptable. Some theories suggest that socialisation is achieved only through imitation or through a process of rewards and punishments. Current theories, however, stress the role of cognition, or perceiving, thinking, and knowing; thus, mature socialisation requires that a person explicitly or implicitly understand the rules of social behaviour that function in all situations.
Socialisation also includes understanding concepts of morality. The American psychologist Lawrence Kohlberghas demonstrated that moral thinking exists on three levels. At the lowest level, a rule is obeyed in order to avoid punishment. This level characterises the thought of very young children. At the highest level, a person has a rational understanding of universal moral principles necessary for society's survival. The understanding of such concepts, however, is often inconsistent with behaviour. Research has shown that moral behaviour varies with each situation and is not predictable for individuals.

3. Mental hygiene

What is the mental hygiene? The mental hygiene is the science of maintaining mental health and preventing the development of psychosis, neurosis or other mental disorders. Since the founding of the United Nations the concepts of mental health and hygiene have achieved international acceptance. As defined in the 1946 constitution of the World Health Organisation, "health is a state of complete physical, mental, and social well-being, and not merely the absence of disease or infirmity." The term mental health represents a variety of human aspirations:
 Habilitation of mentally retarded, rehabilitation of the mentally disturbed, prevention of mental disorder, reduction of tension in a stressful world, and attainment of a state of well-being in which the individual functions at a level consistent with his or her mental potential. As noted by the World Federation for Mental Health, the concept of optimum mental health refers not to an absolute or ideal state but to the best possible state insofar as circumstances are alterable. Mental health is regarded as a condition of the individual, relative to the capacities and social-environmental context of that person. Mental hygiene includes all measures taken to promote and to preserve mental health. Community mental health refers to the extent to which the organisation and functioning of the community determines, or is conducive to the mental health of its members. Throughout the ages the mentally disturbed have been viewed with a mixture of fear and revulsion. Their fate generally has been one of rejection, neglect, and ill treatment. Though in ancient medical writings there are references to mental disturbance that display views very similar to modern humane attitudes, interspersed in the same literature are instances of socially sanctioned cruelty based upon the belief that mental disorders have supernatural origins such as demonic possession. Even reformers sometimes used harsh methods of treatment; for example, the 18th-century American physician Benjamin Rush endorsed the practice of restraining mental patients with his notorious "tranquillising chair."

3.1. Early institutions

The history of care for the mentally ill reflects human cultural diversity. The earliest known mental hospitals were established in the Arab world, in Baghdad (AD 918) and in Cairo, with that special consideration traditionally given disturbed people, the "afflicted of Allah." Some contemporary African tribes benignly regard hallucinations as communications from the realm of the spirits; among others, Hindu culture shows remarkable tolerance for what is considered to be bizarre behaviour in Western societies. The Western interpretation of mental illness as being caused by demonic possession reached its height during a prolonged period of preoccupation with witchcraft (15th through 17th century) in Europe and in colonial North America. So-called madhouses such as Bedlam (founded in London in 1247) and the Bicêtre (the Paris asylum for men) were typical of 18th-century mental institutions in which the sufferers were routinely shackled. Inmates of these places often were believed to be devoid of human feeling, and their management was indifferent if not brutal; the primary consideration was to isolate the mentally disturbed from ordinary society. In British colonial America, mentally deranged persons frequently were auctioned off to be cared for (or exploited) by farmers; some were driven from towns by court order, and others were placed in almshouses. Only after more than a century of colonisation was the first British colonial asylum for the insane established in Williamsburg, Va., in 1773. In the 1790s, the French reformer Philippe Pinel scandalised his fellow physicians by removing the chains from 49 inmates (they were mentally retarded mostly!) of the Bic?tre. Some special educators call this time "The Start of the Special Education". At about the same time, William Tuke, a Quaker tea and coffee merchant, founded the York (England) Retreat to provide humane treatment. Benjamin Rush, a physician and signer of the Declaration of Independence, also advocated protection of the rights of the "insane". Despite this progress, more than half a century of independence passed in the United States before Dorothea Dix, a teacher from Maine, discovered that in Massachusetts the insane were being jailed along with common criminals. Her personal crusade in the 1840s led to a flurry of institutional expansion and reform in her own country, in Canada, and in Great Britain.
While these pioneering humanitarian efforts tended to improve conditions, one unplanned result was a gradual emphasis on centralised, state-supported facilities in which sufferers were sequestered, often far from family and friends. Largely kept from public scrutiny, the unfortunate inmates of what fashionably were being called mental hospitals increasingly became victims of the old forms of maltreatment and neglect.

3.2. Modern approaches

The modern mental-health movement received its first impetus from the energetic leadership of a former mental patient in Connecticut, Clifford Whittingham Beers. First published in 1908 his account of what he endured "A Mind That Found Itself", continues to be reprinted in many languages, inspiring successive generations of students, mental-health workers, and laymen to promote improved conditions of psychiatric care in local communities, in schools, and in hospitals. With the support of prominent persons, including distinguished professionals, Beers in 1908 organised the Connecticut Society for Mental Hygiene, the first association of its kind. In its charter, members were charged with responsibility for the same pursuits that continue to concern mental-health associations to this day: improvement of standards of care for the mentally disturbed, prevention of mental disorder and retardation, the conservation of mental health and the dissemination of sound information. In New York City less than a year later, on February 19, 1909 Beers led in forming the National Committee for Mental Hygiene, which in turn was instrumental in organising the National Association for Mental Health in 1950.

While philosophic and scientific bases for an international mental-health movement were richly available, Beers seems to have served as a "catalytic spark". Charles Darwin and his contemporaries already had shattered traditional beliefs in an immutable human species with fixed potentialities. By the time Beers began his public agitation was the beginning to be understood that developing children need not suffer some of the crippling constraints imposed on their parents. A newly emerging scientific psychology had revealed some of the mechanisms by which the environment had its effects on individual adjustment, fostering hopes that parents and community could provide surroundings that would enhance the growth and welfare of children beyond levels once thought possible. In this spirit, the mental-health movement early inspired the establishment of child-guidance clinics and programs of education for parents and for the public in general.

Psychiatric and psychological developments during and after World War I. provided fresh impetus to the movement. Over the same period the European development of psychoanalysis, initiated by Sigmund Freud (see before) in Vienna, placed heavy emphasis on childhood experiences as major determinants of psychiatric symptoms and led world-wide to increasing public awareness of psychological and social-environmental elements as primary factors in the development of mental disorders.

3.3. International organisations and national agencies

Beers formed an International Committee for Mental Hygiene in 1919. By 1930, the time of the First International Congress of Mental Hygiene in Washington, D.C., there were mental-hygiene societies in 25 countries. In London at the third international congress in 1948, the World Federation for Mental Health was formed. It provides consultants and shares informal reciprocal functions with several United Nations agencies, including the World Health Organisation (in which a mental-health unit was established in 1949). The federation has convened international study groups and expert committees, held regional and international meetings, and developed close contacts with mental-health workers worldwide. In almost every country there is increasing recognition of the interrelationship between mental health, population pressures, and social unrest. With growing urgency, people almost everywhere seek to promote mental health and to educate the public to pursue conditions conducive to individual growth and peaceful development.

For more than a century before World War II, the mental hospitals of many countries had been the responsibility of local government. Under the British National Health Service Act of 1946, however, the task of providing hospital care fell almost completely on the national government through boards of hospital administration acting as regional agencies for the Ministry of Health. In the same year, existing privately supported mental-health organisations combined to form the (U.K.) National Association for Mental Health. This voluntary national group provides resident facilities for disturbed persons, offers follow-up services, and trains mental-health personnel, in addition to carrying on educational programs. The Mental Health Act of 1959 nullified earlier British laws governing policies toward psychiatric disturbance and retardation. The act provided that a person requiring treatment for a psychological disorder could obtain it in a hospital on the same basis as any medical complaint. Community mental-health services were placed under the jurisdiction of local health authorities working in close association with hospital and outpatient centres. British research into mental-health problems is mainly under the direction of the government-financed Medical Research Council.

Provisions for treating and caring for mentally disturbed persons and for encouraging mental hygiene are generally organised in this manner over most of the continent of Europe. In communist countries (like Hungary before 1990), the state, either through the central or regional governments, had the task of providing and maintaining facilities for disturbed or retarded persons. In countries of the European Economic Community government shares its mental-health function with religious groups or with other non-governmental agencies. Many innovative mental-health services have been initiated in Europe, including the concept of integrated community services, the use of tranquillising drugs, the sheltered workshop and the employment of non-professional workers in positions of responsibility. Imported European ideas combined with the traditional reliance on self-improvement and adjustment already present in Canadian and U.S. culture to give the mental-health movement in those countries additional momentum in the 1930s and early 1940s.

World War II and the post-war problems of returning veterans stimulated further public interest in mental health. The mental-health movement and the mass media discovered each other, and a flood of exposé swept Canada and the United States, notably Albert Deutsch's "The Shame of the States" in 1948. Published in 1946, Mary Jane Ward's book "The Snake Pit" became a Hollywood film success and was followed by many more honestly realistic portrayals of mental problems on screen and television. A psychodynamic approach to the understanding and guidance of children infused North American popular culture. The introduction of pharmacotherapy (e.g., tranquillising and mood-elevating drugs) stimulated further progress.

In 1946 the passage of the National Mental Health Act in the United States made possible the creation of the National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH) in 1949 within what later became the Department of Health and Human Services. State hospital systems were reorganised with increased budgets, while significant federal funds were made available for research, training and clinical facilities. NIMH is the major funding resource in the United States for basic and applied research in mental health and in the behavioural sciences for demonstration projects, and for the training of mental-health professionals. It has developed special programs in a broad range of social problem areas from drug addiction to suicide prevention. The National Clearinghouse for Mental Health Information - operated by NIMH - is a valuable resource, as is the periodical publication Mental Health Digest. Additional sources of support for mental health in the United States include the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, the Veterans Administration, the Department of Education, the Social and Rehabilitation Service, the National Science Foundation and the medical sections of the Department of Defense. Charitable foundations also have provided generous support over the years.

The psychiatric and the school mental hygiene has a useful operational model what named after the author Dr. Deno, The Deno-waterfall-theory (Gerevich, József: The school's mental hygiene p.77.), 2. Figure shows it:

The essential of the model is that the clinical methods are the last one what it should be used. Before using the clinical method we should try to take care of the person in many different "soft ways".

4. How to take care of the mental hygienic problems at the different level of personal- and community-development

4.1. Regeneration-lines

Marx and Engels' writings, particularly Das Kapital (1867-94), The German Ideology (London ed., 1938) and The Communist Manifesto (1848) have reshaped the world. Millions have been inspired by their vision of unalienated work and education. Unfortunately, like many influential ideas, they have been abused and distorted. Several states have tried to bring about a Communist utopia through collectivist coercion and social manipulation in a distortion of Marx's arguments. There is a need for state intervention to remove gross inequalities and to expand opportunities, in Marx's view, but ultimately human regeneration is a task for each individual.
In the previous parts I wrote about two regeneration lines:
1.) The "family model community" where every member could start their own personality development.
2.) The person has his/her own duty, task, function, role and place in the community.
But there is a 3rd line too:
3.) This 3rd line is what we could call an identification-line of cognition. This could be a base of a "thinking-workshop" for people how want to do an "intellectual activity". During this process they will find out what is identity, duty etc.
These three usually interweave with each other and they are the result of each other.
The next part is a result of a "thinking-workshop" what was started by Eric Berne (transactional analysis) but his thinking was effected many others.

4.2. The development of the "human-system"

"What is the necessary and sufficient condition to get "steady wisdom?" Bhagawan says "Self-realisation" is both necessary and sufficient. When we see, hear, touch, smell or taste an "object" we create an "image" in our mind and that image stays, though the object may no longer available. The "like" and "dislike" of objects experienced by the sense organs (eye, ear, mouth, nose and skin) become permanent. The mind agitation starts at the very moment of contact of the objects by the sense organs. The one and only way to control the mind (keep steady mind) is to control the senses that contacted those objects (illusions!). According to advaita, the object is an illusion and the subject is "real." The SUBJECT (Consciousness) controls the sense organs and we should direct our attention to the subject rather than the object. Bhagwan says that if you direct your attention to the subject then you will realise that the object "never exists!" In Vedanta, only the subject controls the sense organs and self-realisation is the necessary and sufficient condition for controlling the senses and attaining steady mind."
- Bhagavad Gíta: interpretation -(Bhagavad Gíta p. 103.)

The "human-system" has different developmental levels:
* Every level has a number (from 1-5), but the levels are not always in this order. Every person could be in one level in one time, but another time s/he could be in another level of the system, depends on the situation.
* The other hand is that not every person could use all the levels; this is depends on the state of development (of the person).
* The levels are not fix, they are continuously changing.
* The levels from 1-4 usually part of everybody's life in adulthood, but just a few who could reach the 5th level.

1st level: the "Kaosz"

Feature: distrust and uncertainty. We don't have real roles in this level, or if we have they are not personal roles. For example: the postman takes our letters etc. but we usually don't have a personal contact with him. He has his role as a "postman", but it's more a "job" then a role-play. His importance is the letter what he brings to us, not his personality.

2nd level: the "Role"

Feature: the key-sentence is "how we have to behave...?";
This level could be bureaucratic and conform, the key word is "must and had to...".
Right after our birth we have the first role "the baby". Every culture has his own "baby role", what shows us how a "good baby has to behave" and after when we slowly grown up time to time many new role and role-play wait for us to study and to be used. Many different situations has his own roles what someone has to play...

3rd level: the "Game"

The main question in this level: "who makes the rules, and what kind of rules s/he has to make?" The communication-manipulation is entering in this level. "How can I enforce my own way against others?"

4th level: the "Humanistic level"

The Self is accepting her/him-self and undertakes his/her own idea and conception. Feature: a "new language" between partners what includes sincerity, confidence and trust. In this "new language" the basic word is "You and I" (from Buber, M.: "I and Thou"; 1991. Europa Inc) together like one word, not Me or You. The single mode is the individual who chooses to live within himself the loner. The dual mode occurs when two people unite in feeling for each other. (Since the early years of the 20th century, Martin Buber has exercised a powerful influence on both Jews and non-Jews. In his early period Buber was led, partly through empathy with Jewish and non-Jewish mysticism, to stress unitive experience and knowledge, in which the difference between one man and another and between man and God tend to disappear. But in his final period he taught, following, as he claimed, a suggestion of Ludwig Feuerbach, a 19th-century German philosopher, that man can only realise himself as a human being in a relation with another, who may be another man or God.) This conception of the "I and You" relationship leads to the formulation of Buber's view of the dialogical life - the mutual, responsive relation between man and others - and accounts for the importance that he attaches to the category of "encounter." The communication partners admit each other existence and autonomy. Another keyword is the "affection". This is the point when the Self takes over itself because of the "Other". "The Love is a Care, the Care is a Responsibility, but the Responsibility needs Respect, because without respect it is changing to be a possession." (Fromm, E.: The art of loving p. 38-41.)

5th level: the "Transpersonality" -level

The keyword in this level is: "WE", what shows us that we can't live alone in our life; the human being is a social being. The feature is in this level that "we are one, we are the part of each other life". This is the level of the "cosmic faith", this is the level of "collective wisdom". Here the "You" and "I" become "We." The plural mode is when an individual interacts with others. Finally, the mode of anonymity occurs when an individual loses him-self in a crowd or disassociates his feelings from others. The American psychologist Rollo May believed psychology had neglected the basic nature of man as a being who does the experiencing and to whom the experiences happen. To May, man's awareness of his own mortality makes vitality and passion possible.

4.3. The stairs of the community development

To make a new community is not to difficult, but to make it a well-organised community; it is a long time and lots of energy. There are many rules and developmental levels what they have to pass during by. The next community developmental level system is an open-system. It means continuously changing and developing, "everything what is alive always changing" (Kung Fu-ce In: Szimonidesz L.: The world of religion p.154.).

The process-system of the community development:

1. The basic group lead by a central-person:
The leader has a personal contact with all members. His aim is to be accepted by all members. The other hand is, that the members need someone whom has knowledge to lead them to then next level. The feature in this group is the "trust" (Pannenberg, W.: i.m. p. 27.).

2. The Family-model community:
The best position if the leader invite the members (if there is too many: personally or in small groups, if not: together) to his own social-environment, to his own home. The leader like a "father" takes care of them, they meet in his/her place, where they are "safe", and slowly everyone has a duty in the "family".

3. The Problem-community:
The members are slowly open towards the leader and each other, they find out that day have common problems what they could solve together to use the other's help. They feel they are not alone with their problem.

4. The Action-community:
This is one of the biggest qualitative step in the community development. This is the level of the collective-activity, when the members start to organise their work. They start to use community-techniques and they draft draw up their purpose and target. This is the level where the members study how to use different problem-solving technique and study duty-realisation. With these technique they are able to solve different problems in the same time and after the success-experience is also joint. But the leader has still big responsibility to manage the group work.

5. The Function-community:
From this level the community has its own directive-system and constitution. Every member has a function depending on his/her ability. The personal identity is also developing and become stronger in this level. Everybody has to make small decision on his/her own and take the responsibility of it. The personal differences are appears and it could effect the community development both ways: positive or negative. The members have to study how to solve different clash/conflict of interests. They have to control their ego and personal interests.

6. The Interest-community:
In this level they make a high level community agreement and harmony, this will help to study and feel the community "WE are"- consciousness. They get much information about them-self from the social-environment as a negative feedback as a social-mirror. After they feel that they are the owners of their own community, they are a part of something what need them.

7. The Independent-community:
In this level they are a self-supporting community. They have more and more real working contact with the outside word and surroundings. They make new contact with other communities; they make some programs together if the two communities have something common. They are ready for an external-communication and relationship with others.

8. The Political-community or Central-movement-formation:
In this case the "political" attribute's meaning is equal with the "policy"-world. The "policy" has a community meaning: to make effort to build and put into practice different strategy in the interest of different purpose. This is very important because the other world "politics" has a different meaning like "be in power/office".
But this level is the level of "thinking-wisdom" where they don't want to take over or push down other communities just to have bigger power. They make decisions and they are considering other's interests. Very important the level of the communication between different communities, because different level makes difference of opinion. In this level the community has a central-management and different small-subgroup. The central-management co-ordinate, co-operates with others, makes the final decisions and values the results. (4. Table Ve-Ga ®)

5. "6CIA"-method (6 Category Intervention Analysis)

The original model:
John Heron made the 6 CIA Method in the Surrey University's "Human Potential Research Project" framework. They used this method to train different professionals who deal with "special needs people". This method makes better interpersonal-communication ability for them and after they could more effectively help for others (Rúzsa, Ágota: 6KIA Training 1994). This method helps in the real practice for doctors, psychologists, social workers, teacher etc. by examining their behaviour and intention during the communication. The method gives us 6 basic intentions what could appear between Helper (professional) and Helped (client) person. In the next part I try to explain how we could use this method in Education especially Special education.

5.1. The system and structure of the essential concept

Intervention: in this case the meaning is to "offer a help to someone", but we call it intervention because it's happening in the verbal or non-verbal communication level.
The intervention could be 3 kinds:
1. Straight question (question words);
2. Open question (description);
3. Premediated (with intention).
The intervention is an intention between the two person (Helper and Helped) what realised in a communication strategy.

It is very important to keep the balance between the two main intervention group (I and II). If we use the balance of power we could use the next rules:
1. The Helped person has his own autonomy and the "helpless" gives him/her the "power" because s/he needs our help. Everybody knows who had a new-born (baby) that how strong is s/he, because to be "helpless" gives the power to move everyone around him/her. All family member running for the baby, working for the baby. Our case is something similar.
2. The Helper also has a kind of power: the power of the knowledge.
3. The 3rd rule is "to share the power" with the Helped person.
4. Always the situation, the context shows to the Helper which intervention has s/he use.
The traditional education usually uses to many times the I. authoritative interventions especially the informative offers, but not really use II. facilitative interventions. The "alternative educational line" usually uses the II. facilitative interventions and they try not to use many time the I. authoritative interventions. But in this case sometimes they lose control in the school, because they don't use at all the authentic hierarchy positive power.

The Offers of the Helper

- Prescriptive offers: advise, suggest, and recommend;
- Informative offers: gives new knowledge, explain and interpret the behaviour;
- Confrontative offers: confront the Helped person with his/her behaviour;
- Cathartic offers: absolve from the frustration, open and help all emotions;
- Catalytic offers: bring knowledge and information to the surface, help to solve the problems (with different techniques), use the personal fantasies and creativity;
- Supporting Offers: support the identity development-process, fortify and make stronger the personal worth. (Berne, E.: Human Games p.19.)

Two word is very important in the middle of the circle the Empathy and the Trust. Empathy: the ability to imagine oneself in another's place and understand the other's feelings, desires, ideas, and actions. It is a term coined in the early 20th century, equivalent to the German Einfühlung and modelled on "sympathy." The term is used with special (but not exclusive) reference to aesthetic experience. The most obvious example perhaps is that of the actor or singer who genuinely feels the part he is performing. With other works of art, a spectator may by a kind of interjection feel himself involved in what he observes or contemplates. The use of empathy is an important part of the counselling technique developed by the American psychologist Carl Rogers.
Trust (confidence): What enabled 19th-century culture to pursue the scientific quest and regain confidence in spiritual truth was the work of the German idealist philosophers, beginning with Immanuel Kant. (Pannenberg, W.: i. m. p.26.)

5.1.1. The Prescriptive Offers

The prescriptive offers aim is to turn on the Helped person's attention to him/her-self.
* Demonstration, advice, orders (command), suggestion etc.
Important notice: If the Helper use the Prescriptive offers too many times the Helped person may become dependence and lose the chance of self-control behaviour.
From all professions the Army and the Education use this offers mostly.
The "self-sentence" (I think... If I were you...etc) is very important during the usage of these offers.
The "3 steps confrontation self-sentence" model by Gordon, T.:
I. To control and speak about the other's behaviour;
II. What do I feel during this I. (if I am the "controller"?)
III. What kind of consequence is coming after it?

How could we attain the consultation level from the direct command?
* to use the best grammatical forms what good for the situation and for the Helped person;
* the meta-communication could make us stronger or could make us weak;
If we reach the point of consultation we could very easily start to use the Catalytic Offers.

5.1.2. The Informative Offers

The Informative Offers' aim is to give useful knowledge and information to the Helped person for his/her interest and claim. Important notice: If the Helper use the informative offers too many times (we can find it in usual schools) the Helped person may become disinterested about knowledge and lose the chance of self-control study and motivation. The information is power especially at the end of this century.
The information has many components:
* When, how, to who, what is a purpose, which language level they use, where, how many times they have for it etc. The teacher is the "owner of the knowledge", the student is the receiver and user of it. In this case the teacher is "the owner of the Power", it means s/he has to know how to use it successfully. The information's quantity is an important point, if:

5.1.3. The Confrontative Offers

Confrontation: a state of conflict between two antagonistic forces, creeds, or ideas etc. This intervention confronts the Helped person with him/her-self and behaviour. This helps the person to get information about him/her-self, how others looking at him/her. It is very important that these offers unasked and based on a supposing. We have to be careful to use it, because it could be shock-able, aggressive and could make anxiety. Important that we use it in a good time and place, it must be targeting but with supporting background. The Helper has to give time and space for the Helped person for procession.
Some Confrontative offers:
* negative feedback
* call the Helped person's attention to an insufficiency;
* particular questions;
* the language of discussion;
* returning and repeating;

5.1.4. Cathartic Offers

The aim of the cathartic offers to exempt the tension, what misrepresenting the Helped person's behaviour. It is very important to help the emotions to "come out", to "discharge" them sometimes. That is one of the reasons why people go to theatre, read books, poems or watching "touching" movies. Also important what's happening inside of the person during these actions. The cathartic offers could change positively basic attitudes and sometimes deeply affect the personality.
E.g. one method of the Cathartic Offers is the emotions' transmutation (TM), then the frustration's energy transformed - by an action - to a positive energy.
The next picture shows us the different method of the Cathartic Offers in a circle.

The list of Cathartic Offers:

* Transmutation (TM.): it could be active or passive. In the active version of transmutation the person could e.g. write a poem, in the passive version to read a poem. The purpose is the same change something with the emotions; find something what helps to take over the feelings.
* Expression: to analyse, to speak out the content of the emotion or frustration.
* Redirection: this activity has a physical direction e.g. to hit something (wall, door etc.) or brake something (plate, vase...)
* Discharge: this activity has no direction only a simple function like: crying, shouting etc.
* Control: to take charge of emotions, moderate suppression, self-supervising or "positive hold back" of the emotion. Important notice that this needs a lots of energy and attention.
* Switch over: to make a kind of activity, what has direction and needs time, space, situation changing. E.g. go to run, or training "to work out" the accumulated energy.

5.1.5. The Catalytic Offers

The aim of the Catalytic offers to help the Helped person during the self-development process, when s/he study her/him-self, to teach different techniques for self-control, self-discovery etc.
One of the techniques the "open question". E.g. "What kind of memory do you have about school?" Also important the "here and now"-principle. Everything what now happening is between us and everything only here and now effective.
a.) simple reflection (echo)
----------------------------a.) and b.) Do not has question stress
b.) selective reflection

c.) open question - closed question: every question must be "client-centered".(C. Rogers)
d.) empathic construction: to use the empathy as an active device.
e.) logical construction: to use the "active attention" as a device (T. Gordon).


5.1.6. The Supporting Offers

The Supporting Offers' aim is to make stronger the Helped person's personality: worth, attribute, act, self-creation etc. The Helper's personality must be kind, friendly, empathic, encouraging, intimate, authentic and careful. Also could use physical "movements" like smile, touch, caressing and embrace.

This circle is not finished, everyone using different supporting offers, so someone uses the same, someone uses different ones. The Helper has not to use too many times these supporting, because sometimes the Helped person has to find his own way alone, fight with his/her problems alone, but when s/he really needs help, that is the time for the Helper. This is the hard part, to know when we have to give a help and when we don't have to help, but this is coming with the practice and the empathy always help us.

8. Conclusion

Our life in every level a kind of "Community Life", we always belong to a bigger or smaller community, in every community we have our own contact-system with other people. This communication-net-system is very immense and puzzling, we are a member of a: family, a school, a work place, friendship, training, gym, clubs etc. in other words we are always in social-relation-system from birth. This system is already a kind of "supporting-net", where not working usually any professional, but they also could help us. It is a fact that we can realise our-selves from the others, if they are not me, I am a different being. I am a Human, who lives together with others, and I can be an individual being only because of them.


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